Secret Underground World Society




If you survive in reading this doc to the bottom of this page, you should be given a medal for many will never have made it to that point.

To my 20 year old daughter, the Great White Brotherhood where ever they may be located on the HIGHEST of the Spiritual Planes on Earth, GOD, all the innocent people in the PAST who have been NAILED TO THE CROSS by the Secret Underground Society, all the innocent people at the PRESENT who are NOW being NAILED TO THE CROSS by the Secret Underground Society, all the innocent people in the FUTURE who will be NAILED TO THE CROSS by the Secret Underground Society, and for all the innocent children who have no place to run to when their parents indoctrinate them also as members into the Secret Underground Society.
If you have been wondering why certain things have been happening to you and your friends in your endeavors to protect the Constitution, Bill Of Rights, etc. of the United States by way of hindering and clobbering you and your efforts then this doc will help to explain to you who is doing it to you and the evil that permeates within our country not knowing RIGHT FROM WRONG.
I encourage distribution of “The Secret Underground World Society” doc to United States and World Wide computer bulletin board systems. The “TRUTH” shall set us and our children FREE.
I first bumped into the Secret Underground Society when I was 32 years old. Or should I say that IT bumped into me. What it did to me at 32 years of age was to make me crazy and drive me into a psych ward at a hospital in Tucson, Arizona. I am diagnosed by the wonderful doctors as having schizophrenia due to my run in with the Secret Society; and I am now permanently disabled unable to work living off of disability pensions which support my daughter and myself. But what the wonderful doctors who I have had who live inside the NEST of the Secret Society won’t tell you or me is that he is right when he tells us that he has been screwed. Only ONE doctor way back in 1976 when this happened had the GUTS to tell me that somebody was screwing me. Much more on all of this later in PART 2 of this doc.
Now first of all. No matter how painful it might be for me in revealing to you what has happened to me and is currently happening to my daughter, I have to be truthful to you. Because this kind of stuff is happening and has already happened to many people in the United States. AND NONE OF THIS SHOULD BE HAPPENING TO ANYBODY.
It has to be remembered that the bastards who live as members inside their NEST which is the Secret Underground Society are the cleverest of people you have ever seen. THEY WILL DO EVERYTHING AND ANYTHING THEY HAVE TO DO TO PROTECT THEIR SECRET NEST OF PEOPLE IN THEIR SOCIETY. Its called a BIG TIME NETWORK my friends.
Now I am 50 years old. I have been living inside the Secret Underground Society Nest for 18 years. What does this mean? It means that for 18 years I have been exposed to what they DO TO YOU, how they DO IT TO YOU, and everything else they do. In other words, I got a lot of good stuff on all of them.
Now has my life been in danger for the last 18 years. Well hell. What do you think? Of course it has. Only by the GRACE OF GOD am I still here.
Now I have to worn you who I consider to be “CLEAN” (no, I don’t mean that you just took a bath and washed up) to whom this doc is primarily directed to and for that when the people who live inside the Secret Underground Society NetWork get their hands on this doc that they will try and tell immediately to everybody in the WORLD that this is all CRAZY. That all of this is INSANE.
Unfortunately even “CLEAN” people who read this doc will say this. This is understandable. Unfortunately it will be impossible to tell who is who in saying these things about this doc.
Also when this doc is put onto BBS’s systems don’t be surprised if in a couple of days it is taken OFF of a BBS. Do you think the SYSOP will be able to sleep at night who is one of these cockroaches with the knowledge
that there is this doc there exposing them all.
What “CLEAN” means here is that the person is a “NORMAL” person in living life. In other words the person is not a member of the Secret Underground Society, never heard of it, and doesn’t know twaddly shit about it.
First of all in the United States the population is about somewhere from 260-280 million people ( I don’t remember the exact figures).
So what we have and THINK ONLY what we have is the VISIBLE SOCIETY or population. Yep. Thats what I thought too up until I was 32 years old. I would see all my friends now and then, talk to strangers now and then, drive my car through town every day past tons of people just like you do too, etc., etc., and thought that they were all normal people just like me.
But, however, there is an INVISIBLE SOCIETY which is a subset made up from the VISIBLE SOCIETY!
Okay. So now what the hell is the INVISIBLE SOCIETY. Alright. What we have running around in the streets of the United States is a subset of a population that belongs to TWO IDEOLOGIES BASED UPON THEIR SOCIOLOGICAL STATUS IN LIFE.
There are two sides of people running around in here called RED and BLUE. Don’t I wish it was this easy to explain but it is not. From those people who come from the United States population and are on the RED SIDE, I have discovered that this side of people can be broken down into two sub-groups called BRIGHT REDS AND BLACK REDS. Lets get this straightened out really fast here that BLACK means really EVIL and BRIGHT means somewhat GOOD. Now the BLUE SIDE coming from the United States population I have discovered is composed of SEVEN GROUPS OF BLUE SIDES!
Nobody said that their shit was going to be easy to understand! These bastards made it this way, I didn’t.
Now it is important to understand that one of these BLUE SIDES is a BLACK BLUE SIDE. And naturally I have discovered that there is also a BRIGHT BLUE SIDE.
Okay now we have chart time.
(1) Black Red (1) Black Blue (2) Bright Red (2) Blue (3) Blue (4) Blue (5) Blue (6) Blue (7) Blue
Now the BRIGHT BLUE SIDE I have mentioned earlier comes from some members who are in the other six Blue Sides-not obviously from the damn BLACK BLUE SIDE.
These numbers here are not rankings of any nature. I just used numbers to help me to list the complication of their mess that they have created within their damn INVISIBLE SOCIETY.
Think in terms of super BIG NUMBERS and you will be getting close to comprehending how much of the United States population is involved in this SUPER SECRET. Would 200 million scare you? Maybe 230 million? Would 150 million make you feel better? Obviously I don’t have any exact numbers. I can only tell you that I keep running into tons of them all the time during the last 18 years of fighting these bastards for my survival and for my daughters – especially against the BLACK ONES.
I don’t know how it got created. I haven’t been able to find out from any of the nuts inside of it “WHO STARTED IT” or “HOW IT GOT STARTED” or even “WHEN IT GOT STARTED”! But I know one thing that it has been here since World War II and I believe it has been here even way before World War II!
Wrong. You should ask all the people who are sitting in MENTAL INSTITUTIONS about THEM who have had their brains cracked by them on purpose for various reasons ( more on this in Part 2 ) and, thereby, arranged conveniently to be placed into institutions to SHUT THEM UP. They love for people who have discovered what is going on to be so scared of them that you will just stay inside your house for ever or just sit in a rocking chair on the porch for ever all doped up on psychotic medication until you die.
They thrive on your fear of them.
By the way I told one of them; a poisonous female soul that I was going to write a doc on them. She said “Nobody will believe you”. This is partly how
they keep on getting away with it. In still existing as a Secret Underground Society never getting busted apart.
First of all what this means is that money and power is involved here for them. Remember those Fraternity and Sorority House in College! Your bonded to your fraternity brother or sorority sister and if sometime in the future say you are applying for a job and the job interviewer sees that you are a member of HIS FRATERNITY what do you think is going to happen? Bingo, you get the job and the other guy loses out. Thats the way life is and thats how these things operate. So lets go back to our Secret Underground Society Chart and think of all of those seven BLUE GROUPS of these people as being THEIR FRATERNITIES AND SORORITIES. Likewise for the two RED GROUPS mentioned previously.
So what we have is the social stratification of people with money and power and the lack of money and power layered inside of all these different BLUE AND RED GROUPS. First those in poverty; next those people having a little bit more; next those people doing better then those below the others; say now perhaps the middle class for example; then those much better off then the middle class; and etc. and etc.
First of all the RED GROUP or RED SIDE is mapped SOMEWHAT as a 1-to-1 correspondence to the Democratic Party. Likewise the BLUE GROUP or BLUE side is mapped SOMEWHAT as a 1-to-1 correspondence to the Republican Party.
In watching these insects at work, especially the BLACK BLUE SIDE, the majority of the Republican Presidents have come from the BACK BLUE SIDE. I am not sure if all of the Republican Presidents have come from that side but a lot of them have come from that side. It is stated here that the BLACK BLUE SIDE is utterly super dangerous to the happiness and well-being of the American Citizens.
It is also important to remember that the BLACK BLUE SIDE are the ones responsible for the utter destruction of many innocent peoples lives by putting them on the TOP OF THEIR SHIT LIST. Being thankful for this side in showing me THEIR EVILNESS has shown me and will show you how to deal with their evil.
Also from what I can understand from knowing about the Secret Underground Society`s Network shit is that the Democratic Presidents seem to be coming from the BLACK RED SIDE. These bastards are just as evil and think almost just like the BLACK BLUE SIDE.
We will talk about more of this later as we get deeper into this doc.
Nope! All these sides or if you want to you can also think of them as clubs indoctrinate their children into whats really going on through the parents. From what I can see is that a lot of these parents indoctrinate their children at maybe around 10 – 12 years of age. I also have heard from their BIG MOUTHS that many of the parents wait until the children are much older before the parents tell the children what is really going on.
Also some children are never told anything being the fact that the teenager couldn’t handle it and would tell everybody.
So the number of people in these sides keep on growing and growing.
I’ll give you an example here which should be in PART 2. I would see teenagers around 15-16 years old come up to me and say to me “Bob do you have a dime.” Plus during the last 18 years there were many other examples of what these kids would say to me WHEN IN FACT I WOULD NEVER KNOW WHO THEY WERE. But they would use my name “Bob”! Well friends, the Secret Underground Society knows everything about you and THEY ALL PASS THE INFO AMONG THEMSELVES BECAUSE YOUR ON THE TOP OF THEIR LIST AS BEING A THREAT TO THEIR VERY EXISTENCE AND TO WHAT THEY ARE GETTING AWAY WITH IN LIFE.
So in essence some of these teenager underground shits play their little MIND GAMES WITH YOU. “Bob, you got a dime?” “Bob, you got a quarter?” Etc.
Oh no, not another color your saying! This is already quite some kind of fiction or science fiction story your thinking by now.
Well, friends. If ( and it does happen ) a RED SIDE male or female marries a BLUE SIDE female or male then THEY and THEIR CHILDREN are considered to be PINK. In other words there is a cross over. Why the hell are they called PINK now? I don’t know! This is their society mess, not mine. Take out a color chart wheel and combine the colors RED and BLUE; you sure as hell don’t get PINK. They created this; I didn’t. I just walked into it and discovered it. How lucky I am. Yeah, right.
Also I have seen “CLEAN PEOPLE” ( see the definition of CLEAN previously) get married to THEM. Obviously never knowing that their spouse is one of these nuts in the Secret Underground Society.
Now this leads us right into are next topic.
YEP! At first when I bumped into this secret society I thought that each of the many different sides of people didn’t know who the people were in the other sides. But I observed and learned really fast. They ALL KNOW what side(s) their friends, neighbor, doctors, lawyers, politicians, clergy, dentists, police officers, presidents, supreme court members, etc. are on.
Lets put it this way friends. The Secret Underground Society exists all the way from the bottom such as hookers to all the way to the top such as the rich and powerful.
Now if a side doesn’t know immediately if somebody three thousand miles away from them is on their TEAM, they will find out REALLY FAST through their GRAPE VINE what side that person is on.
During the last 18 years I know of one couple that were recruited by these insects to be on or rather to join a particulary side. Oh, by the way, these people were also given the SNOW JOB by the SIDE recruiting them that THEY WOULD BE HELPED IN LIFE. Needless to say NOTHING ever was given or offered to these people to help them in their life after they were recruited.
It is to be noted here that many of these people in these SIDES are (and do get pissed off) at their own politicians and presidents that are on their same side that may be in power. Just like how “NORMAL” or “CLEAN” people react. So it is not uncommon for people in the BLUE SIDES to vote for somebody who is in a RED SIDE. Likewise for people who are in a RED SIDE to vote for somebody who is in a BLUE SIDE.
Now also you will find many of these people on these sides who are so pissed off at the political choices given to them to vote on that many go over to vote for the third parties.
You have to understand that the people in the RED and BLUE sides (remember they are everywhere) CONTROL the MASS MEDIA plus a whole lot of other shit (how about everything) so that the third parties are always knocked out of debates, TV coverage, you name it, etc.
We all know the ONLY occurrence where this didn’t happen was the last election where the Independent party had BIG BUCKS to spend to not let it happen. But what about those other third parties? They never were invited to participate in any debates; they never got hardly and PRESS coverage, etc. and etc.
Now friends what we must realize here is that the RED and BLUE SIDES, especially the BLACK RED and BLACK BLUE SIDE DON’T want any other contender parties in the United States to exist! A recent previous president even said this on the TV NEWS one day in the past that two parties have suited the United States just fine. YEP. RED and BLUE PARTIES.
Friends. What these two sides have been into for so long is called control of us.
Of course I am. Considering how massive it is in the United States you don’t really think that IT isn’t spread throughout the whole world do you. In fact I can thank a woman back in the time span from 1980-83 who had a big mouth in telling me so when I was learning about this cesspool the hard way (more on her in PART 2).
Of course just like in the United States there are people in all the other countries that would be CLEAN ALSO (God bless them).
Yes there is. But unfortunately I don’t know to much about who the TOP leaders are only that a bunch of them are in Washington, D.C.. First of all their Generals wear suits/dresses and are at the top of the POWER STRUCTURE. As they give their orders they filter all the way down through their cesspool to all the Joe Beer Cans/families to implement. Naturally since Joe Beer Can doesn`t know RIGHT FROM WRONG (in other words has its ass located where its brains are suppose to be located) implements the ORDER. EVIL at its finest! TOTALITARIANISM at its best!
It is to be noted that these people in these colorful RED AND BLUE SIDES are also encamped as having jobs inside the FBI, NSA, CIA, DIA, you name it.
So here we got BLACK BLUES and BLACK REDS working inside the intelligence agencies along with the BRIGHT BLUES and BRIGHT REDS. Plus people from those other six BLUE SIDES working inside of these organizations. What is to be noted here is that there are also CLEAN PEOPLE working in these organizations to.
These colorful sides just love the CLEAN PEOPLE because they can manipulate them so nicely since they don’t know what the hell is going on.
So what we have here are these colorful girls and guys doing security checks on COLORFUL PEOPLE and CLEAN PEOPLE for security clearances. I find this rather hilarious and sickening at the same time. Unfortunately when these rats are doing there background checks on the CLEAN PEPLE they should have the balls which they don’t have to tell the CLEAN people that “Oh, I forgot to tell you, I live inside the Secret Underground Society and I’m DIRTY doing this check on you who is CLEAN”.
I think you get the picture on how this works. When they are doing their background checks they look the other way when it comes to what side the person is on under going the check. In other words “Can’t upset the Secret Society Nest”. So what we have are millions of SECRET SOCIETY NUTS running around with security clearances.
Yes and No. These colorful people jump from side to side like jumping beans. There are people, say, in a certain particular BLUE SIDE that will and do jump out of it into another or different BLUE SIDE thinking they will be on a better WINNING TEAM.
Yes once you are inside the Secret Underground Society you are always stuck there. Nothing is ever NORMAL for you again.
Yep. I have run into people who have wished that the Secret Underground Society never existed because they know that IT IS ALL WRONG TO LIVE THIS WAY!
But unfortunately they all don’t have the BIG BALLS TO TRY AND BUST IT APART.
Remember that the colorful people inside the BLACK BLUE AND BLACK RED SIDES are totally EVIL and work together to destroy innocent peoples lives. In fact when these RED shits need to, they will put on their black and blue hats one day and then the next day put back on their black and red hats.
Likewise the junk BLACK BLUE SIDE when they have to will put on their red hats one day and the next day put back on their blue hats again.
This is why an awful lot of people who live inside this Secret Society mess hate these ass holes with a passion. Because their generals or leaders play the double dipping game. FOLKS ITS ALL FOR POWER AND MONEY AND CONTROL OF YOU!
Nobody said that it would be easy in understanding the Secret Underground Society mess.
A lot of them don’t know that they are being controlled by the UPPER MANAGEMENT of the BLACK BLUE AND BLACK RED SIDES! But a lot of them are not stupid. They have figured it out that even THEY are being used and controlled and are pissed off just like a CLEAN PERSON would be. Thats why there is a lot of dissension within these TEAMS.
Yep. I will outline some of THEIR words that they love to use with a description of what these words mean to these NUTS as used by them inside THEIR FRAME OF REFERENCE/SOCIETY.
1) CAR – We all know what the “NORMAL” meaning of a car means right. A vehicle that maybe only holds six people. These colorful maniacs inside these sides also use it to mean “ALL THE PEOPLE ON THEIR SIDE”.
They will say something like this to you, “You can’t get out of your CAR!” As an example, say it came from some shit on the BLACK RED side of maybe 25 million people (only God knows the true number of people) in the United States saying this to one of its member’s who wants to leave that particular side and jump to a different side because he/she may think its a better winning team.
2) MACHINE – What this means when these colorful rats use this word is in regards to, say, an opposite side of people from them having a very powerful and slick MACHINE (SIDE OF PEOPLE) who CAN and DO get the job done whatever that job may be!
An example given in regards to what a particular person on the BLACK BLUE SIDE would say about another person would be for them to say about that person that “This machine can read minds, lets go, we got to report this.”.
Yes. These colorful bastards in these sides are obsessed with psychics and in finding all the members of “The Great White Brothehood” so that they can destroy them all and if you continue reading this whole doc you will learn about this too.
For the readers here who don’t know what the hell the Great White Brotherhood is, it is a group of highly evolved mystics or spiritual people who through many incarnations have evolved their consciousness in the understanding and manipulation of Cosmic (spiritual) principles and are living on our planet with the mission of watching over the Earth to HELP to guide us so that we don’t destroy ourselves and raise ALSO the spiritual consciousness of the masses.
Now if you at this point so far are choking on the word psychics and Great White Brotherhood and think that now this doc is more than really mental bullshit then don’t read anymore of this doc
and erase the fucking file and go about your daily business as usual.
Another example of how say a particular sides machine works again using the BLACK BLUE SIDE as being the culprits would be lets say that “You are on the TOP OF THEIR LIST” and they want to create pain for you so they are going to fix it that your mortgage lender forecloses on the mortgage thats on your house. Now lets say that you have your checking account at some other institution. Now the girl or guy in the bank where you have your checking account at and who is a member of their machine loses on purpose your mortgage check that you wrote for say, February. Also lets say that a microfiche copy was not made. In fact lets say that no copy of that check ever was made because it was conveniently lost after it was recorded into the banks computer database. So the only record you have of paying February’s mortgage payment is lets say, the check number 144 on your monthly statement that was returned to you showing a payment of $799.45. So you call the bank an bitch to them about that you have a missing check and where the hell is it. So the bank tells you, “Well, you have the amount on your statement with the check number and we are very sorry but we just don’t know what happened to that check.”. So you bitch and groan and live with it. Now that the machine has screwed you, the guy or girl in the same machine at the institution where you have your loan at for your house executes the next part of the machines plan. They have conveniently deleted in their computer database at the mortgage institution a couple of months in sequence of payments that you made for them and of course February’s will be one of them. So you get a statement from the mortgage lender saying we are going to foreclose on you because you did not make February’s, March’s, and April’s payments. But you call them and tell them that you did pay them. Now the mortgage lender demands proof from you that indeed you did pay them. So you dig out those old cancelled checks for March and April and now say to yourself, “Oh shit, I don’t have February’s”. Just my statement and what is written in my check book. So here you go back to the mortgage lender, back to the bank, back to the mortgage lender, and etc. and etc. until you can get it all straightened out, if you ever can.
This never has happened to me. I am trying to show you what a machine is according to these colorful sides of rats and how their machine can work and does work.
3) BLOCK – These rats use this term when say, for example, a particular side, lets use a BLUE SIDE here, has a member of it who is going to be clobbered for some reason by the BLACK RED side and the BLUE SIDE has gotten wind of whats going to happen to a member on their BLUE SIDE. So what the BLUE SIDE MACHINE does is try to STOP or BLOCK what is going to happen to somebody on its side so it doesn’t happen to him/her.
4) HOT – This is a very popular term that these colorful cockroaches use quite frequently. Lets say, that the BLACK BLUE SIDE is going to
do something to somebody ON THE TOP OF THEIR LIST. Now lets say, that the other colorful sides know about it too and since some of the people in them are somewhat good they will try and convey that trouble is coming your way by telling you “ITS HOT”. They won’t tell you what the hell the trouble is going to be. They just cleverly tell you that “ITS HOT”. Then when you get clobbered (take the fall) you certainly say to yourself, “Yes indeed. It sure as all hell was HOT.”.
5) COLD – This is a very popular term that these colorful underground nuts use too. This term used by them is obviously just the opposite of when they would tell you that its HOT but rather now thats its COLD. In other words in referring back to 4) above when the trouble that was coming your way has been stopped or dissipated, they will tell you as they mutter under their breath to you that its COLD (there is no trouble coming your way – at least for the time being ).
6) HIT – This is another very popular term that these colorful underground sides of society use. Lets say again, that you are on the TOP OF THE SHIT LIST OF THE BLACK RED AND BLACK BLUE SIDES. Also suppose you have some kind of business and these cockroaches GET TO THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN GIVING YOU THEIR BUSINESS CONTRACTS! So what happens is your business and your livelihood from that business starts to go down the drain because all of a sudden you start losing those contracts and can’t new ones. What happened? You got HIT by the THEM. Nailed; and you didn’t even know it or maybe you did suspect something strange was going on around you!
7) SHIFT – Say the BLACK BLUE SIDE whose SHIT LIST YOUR ON is going to hit you in some way (clobber you) to bring pain into your life. Now say, the pretty good sides of colorful people who have adopted you and are trying to protect you from getting screwed by the BLACK BLUE SIDE bust up the hit on you so that you are not clobbered. So what happens is that evil at its finest does a SHIFT to an alternative plan to try and screw up your health, life, happiness, etc.
8) REVERSE – What the epitome of the evil in our country does to us who have figured out what is happening to our country and the world thanks to the BLACK BLUE AND BLACK RED SIDES is that they do whats called a REVERSE and start telling people that WE are a socialist. Now it has been my experience that when somebody is called a socialist that the people think also that HE/HER is also a communist. Patriots and us innocent people who have been placed ON TOP OF THE SHIT LIST are screwed by THEM by now having us discredited when NONE of us are socialist or communist. Another REVERSE that the cockroaches pull is to call us insane. This is all done by THEM to discredit us in the eyes of people who they don’t want to be believing us by giving them disinformation.
9) POP – This is another frequent term that especially the BLACK BLUE AND RED SIDES use when they are presently in the process of trying to make a person on the TOP OF THEIR HIT LIST to go crazy. In other words they POP your brains and drive you the unknowing one crazy so that
you end up in a psych hospital. You will see how they do this to you in PART 2 since this was done to me many times by THEM. This is one of THEIR FAVORITE tactics to use on you.
10) BREAK – This is another very popular term that these colorful misfits like to use inside of their hellish kingdom that they have created. An example of this would be for instance say, that the BLACK BLUE SIDE has cleverly come up with a plan to make you lose your eye sight. In other words, go blind since you are on the TOP OF THEIR LIST. It is to be noted here that this is one of the most recent blessings that THEY had in store for me; more on this one later. So what is done once you know that they are planning to HIT you is to blurt out that information back to them that you are going to do the SAME THING TO THEM. Now since the BLACK BLUE SIDE doesn’t want one of its team members to go blind, but remember it was okay for them to try and make you go blind, the chicken shits end their plan; it comes to an immediately halt. In other words their plan to CRUCIFY you has been BLOCKED because you BROKE it. So what you did to THEM is what is called a BREAK. I may add in order to save your ass from the devils.
11) UP – This is another term that they use very frequently. When somebody in society uses this term in front of you and says to you, “Whats up?”, the normal person would immediately think that the person is asking you “Whats going on with you? But these sick’os also use this term in referring to who is going to be leaving their body soon and having their soul go up! In other words, who is being gotten rid of now and is there a “HIT” on! There is a lot of friction between these colorful groups of sick’os especially between the more Brighter Blue and Red Groups against the Black Blue and Black Red Groups. Its the best schizophrenic country of people I have ever seen. Remember that their children use this term too since the fucking parents have taught them everything about being schizophrenic!
12) BOX – This is another wonderful term that this Secret Underground Society uses quite frequently when various Groups of these people are IN-FIGHTING EACH OTHER! Here to them a box means a PINE BOX that you bury in a cemetery. You have to understand here that these various groups of colorful people control each other by threatening each other with putting each others people inside of boxes, if, for example, the opposite side WHO STARTED ALL THE TROUBLE, say, the BLACK BLUE SIDE for, say, somebody in the Bright Red Group, then the BRIGHT RED GROUP would make sure to tell the BLACK BLUE GROUP that were sending you 8 boxes for christmas if you don’t stop doing what you have been planning on doing to one of our people.
13) BACK – This is still another term that the Schizophrenic Secret Underground Society uses quite frequently. This term is used by THEM in conjunction with the term BOX and HIT. In using still our example as given under the term BOX, when the fucking BLACK BLUE SIDE knows that the BRIGHT RED SIDE is going to give them
8 boxes for Christmas then the BLACK BLUE SIDE gives up their plans of HITTING that one in the BRIGHT RED SIDE. Now that person in the BRIGHT RED SIDE that was going to get clobbered is said to be BACK. In other words, is still alive, since the HIT has been BROKEN.
To bad these evil fuckers inside our society have NEVER READ THE BIBLE.
14) There are other TERMS that they use but this should clue you in to how these damn THINGS THINK.

When I was back in New York State in the 1980’s trying to figure out all this shit I said to a fellow that you have cross currents in here! He said to me “What do you mean?”. I told him that information that is suppose to be for only one particular side flows into somebodies house and then all of a sudden that same important information flows out of that same house into several other directions, not contained for that particular side anymore. “Oh, he said, you mean HOT SPOTS”! Yeah, no shit.
So what we are trying to convey to you here is that hardly any information is contained because a lot of these colorful people in these sides are double dippers as mentioned earlier. In other words they play more than just their side. They give the same information to some of the other sides too. How Holy! So before you know it, everybody has that particular bit of information. Remember its only a phone call away.
If you have survived in reading this doc to this point you should be given a medal for many will never have made it to this point.

Click HERE for complete PDF about Secret Underground World Society

Numeric Code of Ancient Language of the Bible




Commentary and Introduction by Student of Ancient Hebrew and Professional Computer Program Code Writer :

  • I think the Old Testament or any of original hebrew-worded biblical ext, if correct, can do that (connect with our pre-encoded DNA) and more…it seems to be one, huge program, like for a computer…alphanumeric language, meaning hebrew are letters and also stand for numbers….viewed or used correctly, there is so much math in them, that even top professors of number theory at my old alma mater, stated that it would take a room full of mathematics geniuses, thousands of years just to recreate the first 7 words of Genesis in Hebrew, with all its math, and also many more thousands to fit them all into the form and equations of it…there are hundreds of mathematicians working on trying to solve or figure out all the math just in those words, and possibly the rest…even I have special computer and programs to do it…I call it the ‘Fingerprint of God’…


    Humans have used math to represent and calculate everything around us, for it is everywhere, esp the spiral…me, personally, i think if we ever untangle and figure it out, something major would happen to not only us, but everyone and everything…only a massive intellect is capable of such mathematical calculation and to set it all in place as it is, is practically unimaginable…google Ivan Panin…he authored many papers and even had 40-50,000 pages of calc’s he did on the first 7 words, showing the extreme amount of math and placement of it…he did the same with parts of the entire book


    this article explains a teeny-tiny fraction of what Ivan did >>

    Ivan Panin’s Bible Numerics
    Ivan Panin proves the authenticity of the Bible by the mathematical seal beneath its surface

    It does not show, however, the massive equations contained therein


    One more thing…the book of Daniel, part was to be sealed until certain time…maybe this is how it gets unsealed…by math…also, the 216 character or number true name of god, even though the shemhamforash is supposed to be it, may also be found, but cannot be intoned but by the 24 high priests in judaism, known as the “Cohanim Godol” they have been searching for this key since the Babylonians burned the temple, they re-found it, and again gave it back to God when the romans did the same…this time, if found, it will be intoned, but will bring us into the Messiahnic Age…then the true Jews and true Israel will have power there.


    BTW, we do not use the ELS- equadistant letter sequencing, as that “bible code” is simply a parlor trick of math…we use the actual numbers representing the words, phrases, etc


God is A Mathematician

By Keith Newman

The authenticity of the Holy Bible has been attacked at regular intervals by atheists and theologians alike but none have explained away the mathematical seal beneath its surface.

It would seem the divine hand has moved to prevent counterfeiting in the pages of the Bible in a similar manner to the line that runs through paper money. Bible numerics appears to be God’s watermark of authenticity.

Vital research on this numeric seal was completed by a native of the world’s most reknowned atheistic nation, Russia. Ivan Panin was born in Russia on December 12, 1855. As a young man he was an active nihilist and participated in plots against the Czar and his government. He was a mathematical genius who died a Harvard scholar and a citizen of the United States in 1942.

Panin was exiled from Russia. And after spending a number of years studying in Germany, he went to the United States where he became an outstanding lecturer on literary criticism. Panin was known as a firm agnostic—so well known that when he discarded his agnosticism and accepted the Christian faith, the newspapers carried headlines telling of his conversion.

It was in 1890 that Panin made the discovery of the mathematical structure underlining the vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. He was casually reading the first verse of the gospel of John in the Greek: “In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with the God and the Word was God. . .”

Panin was curious as to why the Greek word for “the” preceded the word “God” in one case and not the other. In examining the text he became aware of a number relationship. This was the first of the discoveries that led to his conversion and uncovered the extensive numeric code.

Panin found his proof in the oldest and most accurate manuscripts—the Received Hebrew Text and the Westcott and Hort Text.

In the original languages of the Bible, mostly Hebrew and Greek, there are no separate symbols for numbers, letters of the alphabet are also used to indicate numbers.

The numeric value of a word is the sum total of all its letters. It was curiosity that first caused Panin to begin toying with the numbers behind the texts. Sequences and patterns began to emerge. These created such a stirring in the heart of the Russian that he dedicated 50 years of his life to painstakingly comb the pages of the Bible.

This complex system of numbering visibly and invisibly saturates every book of the scriptures emphasizing certain passages and illustrating deeper or further meaning in types and shadows. The 66 books of the Bible 39 in the Old and 27 in the New were written by 33 different people.

Those authors were scattered throughout various countries of the world and from widely different backgrounds. Many of them had little or no schooling. The whole Bible was written over a period of 1,500 years with a 400 year silence apart from the Apocrypha between the two testaments. Despite the handicaps the biblical books are found to be a harmonious record, each in accord with the other.

Panin says the laws of probability are exceeded into the billions when we try and rationalize the authorship of the Bible as the work of man. He once said: “If human logic is worth anything at all we are simply driven to the conclusion that if my facts I have presented are true, man could never have done this”.

“We must assume that a Power higher than man guided the writers in such a way, whether they knew it or not, they did it and the Great God inspired them to do it”.

The Bible itself states clearly that it is the literal God-breathed living word of the Creator. The words “Thus saith the Lord” and “God said” occur more than 2,500 times throughout scripture.

In 2 Timothy 3:16 it states “All scripture is given by inspiration of God.” Then in II Peter 2:20-21 it plainly states: “No prophecy of the scriptures is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost”.

Let’s take the number seven as an illustration of the way the patterns work. Seven is the most prolific of the mathematical series which binds scripture together. The very first verse of the Bible “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1), contains over 30 different combinations of seven.

This verse has seven Hebrew words having a total of 28 letters 4 x 7. The numeric value of the three nouns “God”, “heaven” and “earth” totals 777. Any number in triplicate expresses complete, ultimate or total meaning.

Also tightly sealed up with sevens are the genealogy of Jesus, the account of the virgin birth and the resurrection. Seven occurs as a number 187 times in the Bible (41 x 7), the phrase “seven-fold” occurs seven times and “seventy” occurs 56 times (7 x 8).

In the Book of Revelation seven positively shines out: there are seven golden candlesticks, seven letters to seven churches, a book sealed with seven seals, seven angels standing before the Lord with seven trumpets, seven thunders and seven last plagues. In fact there are over 50 occurrences of the number seven in Revelation alone.

There are 21 Old Testament writers whose names appear in the Bible (3 x 7). The numeric value of their names is divisible by seven. Of these 21, seven are named in the New Testament: Moses, David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hosea and Joel. The numeric values of these names is 1554 (222 x 7). David’s name is found 1134 times (162 x 7).

God’s seal also pervades creation as though it were woven into the very fabric of nature.

The Bible has declared man’s years to be three score and ten (70). The development of the human embryo is in exact periods of sevens or 28 days (4 x 7). Medical science tells us the human body is renewed cell for cell every seven years.

We’re told the pulse beats slower every seven days as if it were in accord with the seventh day of rest proclaimed in the Genesis creation week. And God formed man of the dust of the ground (Gen 2:7); science confirms the human body is made of the same 14 elements (2 x 7) found in your average handful of dust.

The light of the sun is made up of seven distinct colours as shown in the rainbow. In music there are seven distinct notes which climax in a chord or octave at the beginning of a new seven.

In almost all animals the incubation or pregnancy period is divisible by seven. Seven is often referred to as “God’s seal” or the number of spiritual perfection.

Eight is the number of new life or “resurrection.” It is the personal number of Jesus. When we add together the letter values of the name Jesus in the Greek we get 888. Jesus was called The Christ, the numeric value of this title is 1480 (185 x 8). He was Savior which has the value 1408 (2 x 8 x 88).

Jesus is also Lord which again is a multiple of eight being 800 (100 x 8). Messiah has the numeric value 656 (82 x8). Jesus also called himself the Son of man. The term occurs 88 times and is valued at 2960 (370 x 8).

Jesus said “I am the truth”: the numeric value of “the truth” is 64 (8 x 8). The last book in the Bible is the Revelation of Jesus Christ which has exactly 888 Greek words. Eight persons were saved in the Ark at the great Noahic flood. God made a covenant with Abraham that every male Jewish child was to be circumcised on the eighth day of his life.

There are eight individual cases of resurrection spoken of in the Bible apart from Jesus. Three occur in the Old Testament, three in the gospels and two in Acts. It was on the eighth day or the first day of the new week that Jesus rose from the dead. The Holy Spirit also came down from heaven on the eighth day.

Nine is finality or completion. The first example of its use is that infinitely sealed first verse of the Bible: “In the beginning God” which in Hebrew is: Brayshith Elohim which has the numeric value of 999. The very next statement “created the heaven” is also sealed with 999.

The number nine is endowed with a peculiar quality, it is finality in itself. Not only is it the final single number, but if you multiply it by any other number, the addition of the resulting figures will always revert back to nine (2 x 9 = 18 / 1 + 8 = 9 etc).

There are nine basic gifts available to the Christian believer through the power of God’s Holy Spirit (I Corinthians 12:8-10). There are nine basic fruits which should be evident in the life of the believer (Galatians 5:22-23). The words “my wrath” have the numeric value 999. The word “Amen” or “verily” is valued at 99 and occurs 99 times.

The work on the cross was completed at the ninth hour when Jesus said “It is finished.” The shedding of his blood was final. It saw an end to the old system of animal sacrifice to atone for sin. The word “blood” in this sense occurs 99 times.

Great superstition has always surrounded the number 13 as being unlucky or dark. Perhaps there is good reason. One of the most convincing proofs of the origins of this number can be found by unravelling all the names by which Satan is known. Drakon or dragon has a value of 975 (13 x 75) and it occurs 13 times. Peirazon or tempter has a value of 1053 (13 x 81). Belial which is personification of evil has a value of 78 (13 x 6).

Anthropoktonos or “murderer” has a value of 1820 (13 x 40). Ophis or “serpent” is 780 (13 x 60). The phrase used by the Holy Spirit Ho kaloumenos diablos kai ho Satanas or “called the Devil and Satan” is valued 2,197 (13 x 13 x 13).

This article is in truth an oversimplification of the work of Panin and others who followed in his footsteps. Panin’s work initially involved some 40,000 pages of material on which he had written millions of small neat calculations. It involved volumes.

He often laboured up to 18 hours a day exploring the vast numeric structure. By and large it was a thankless task. Panin said “When I first made the discovery I was of course, taken off my feet—I was in the same condition as our friend Archimedes who when he solved a great mathematical problem while in the bath, rushed in to the street naked, crying ‘I have found it.’ I thought people would be delighted to embrace the new discovery, but I found human nature is always the same. So I quietly withdrew and did my work all by myself”.

Although it would appear that his work has been largely lost from popular reading today Panin did accomplish several outstanding works. He published Structure in the Bible the Numeric Greek New Testament and the Numeric English New Testament.

The works of Ivan Panin have been put before the experts many times. Panin once challenged nine noted rationalists and Bible critics through the medium of the New York Sun newspaper November 9, 1899. He dared them to publicly refute or give explanation for a few of his presented facts. Four made lame excuses. The rest were silent.

Panin issued a challenge throughout leading newspapers of the world asking for a natural explanation or rebuttal of the facts. Not a single person accepted. He died at Aldershot, Ontario Canada on October 30th, 1942, aged 87

(Republished from this link ~

Chemtrails Classified as Exotic Weapon_Chemistry Manual USAF Academy 1990




Rep. Kucinich’s HR 2977 Names Chemtrails As An ‘Exotic Weapon’


H.R.2977 — Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in House – IH)

107th CONGRESS1st Session H. R. 2977To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVESOctober 2, 2001Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

A BILLTo preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.

Click HERE for the COMPLETE BILL classifying Chemtrails as Exotic Weapon.



Click HERE for PDF of chemtrails_chemistry-manual-usaf-academy-1990


Alien Technology and the Unfortunate Death of A Witness







Steven Greer (from reveals to Art Bell the circumstances surrounding William Colby’s death. This interview is from August 8th 2004. The following is a transcript of the part of the interview that is available here as a streaming mp3 file:
Now, I want to talk about an assassination tonight that people may not want to hear, but it’s very similar to what was portrayed in “The Manchurian Candidate” when this Senator is killed while he’s out kayaking on the Chesapeake Bay. I’m referring now to a very brave man, CIA Director Bill Colby, whose very dearest friend approached us in the mid-90s. And the week that we were going to have a meeting – listen carefully — the week we were going to have a meeting with this former CIA Director who had been on the inside of these covert operations, where he was going to transfer to our group $50 million in funding…

AB: What?

SG: …as well as existing extraterrestrial energy devices that were functional. They found him floating down the Potomac River. The colonel…

AB: Wait, wait wait…

SG: …The colonel who set up this meeting came to the funeral of my right hand aide, Shari Adamiak, who died a few years ago, and said, “We have both had grievous losses, but we can’t look back. We’ve got to move forward.” And this was Bill Colby’s best friend.

AB: Under what arrangement – how did, I mean, $50 million, for example – under what auspices, how was that going to happen?

SG: We never got that far, nor did Mr. Colby. My point is this, and I’m not saying this to disturb Bill Colby’s family, but I’ve decided that the truth has got to come out on some of these things, including these illegal, rogue operations that would phone in a threat like this to a civilian medical doctor.

AB: Um Hmm

SG: I’ve never signed a national security oath, and those people who have who are listening, mark my words, go to our website – – and contact me, because as far as I’m concerned, the actions taken by this group make them ineligible to cite the National Security Act of 1947 or any other constitutionally approved law because they are operating as an illegal, extra-constitutional entity.

AB: Got it. All right, Dr. Greer, hold tight. In the middle of the night, you’re listening to Coast to Coast A.M. and I bet you had never heard any of this before from Dr. Greer.

[commercial break]

AB: Just to be sure that we all heard this correctly. Let’s have Dr. Greer go over this one more time. A – uh- murder, Dr. Greer? You’re saying a murder.

SG: Yes.

AB: Uh. And the set up to this was?

SG: Well, I’m – my group was approached by a colonel who I do not want to name, who was Bill Colby’s (one of his very best) friends, and they had been following what we were doing in the early and mid nineties with what was then called Project Starlight, which then became But this man approached a member of our Board of Directors, a very dear friend of mine, and said that there was this person who is very connected up and historically had been connected to these projects, who absolutely agreed that it was time to end the secrecy. He wanted to transfer to us the means to do so through some assets that he had access to and I was told specifically that there was a – he wanted to be sure that there was adequate funding to do it properly which was around $50 million (which is a rounding error on the $7 trillion oil economy) and that they had some devices and physical equipment that they wanted to also transfer so that we could get this disclosed and get it secured and out to the public. So there was a “cell” if you want to look at it that way, that was headed up, that had some involvement from Mr. Colby that wanted to do this. So, the meeting was set up between a member of my Board and Bill Colby, and the week that that meeting was to be actuated, he was found floating down the Potomac River. Now, what’s interesting about the death of Bill Colby was that, even his wife got on CNN and said “Oh, this is very unlike Bill Colby.” Because he was a very safe canoer. He left the house opened, he left the computer on, the coffee maker on, and all this. This was actually publicly and very briefly stated, but then, of course, it was written off as an “accidental” drowning while he was out canoeing on the Potomac River.

AB: I recall.

SG: Now, in reality, it’s very much like what’s being portrayed where art now is imitating life in “The Manchurian Candidate”, where there is a Senator who was going to blow the whistle on this transnational group that was running all this and he is murdered by this manchurian candidate in the Chesapeake Bay when he’s out kayaking and it’s made to look like a drowning accident and is reported out through the media shills (of course, most of the Big Media are shills for these kind of guys, or just extremely naive), as an accidental drowning. So what’s interesting is that this is precisely what happened to Bill Colby, and I’ve said this to a number of people who are actually in the media. And when my wife and I were sitting there looking at this movie, “The Manchurian Candidate,” we were stunned. We looked at each other and went “Oh, my god!” because my wife, of course, knew in real time as this event happened and, of course, it was tragic and we were heartbroken, and of course, not long after that, my right hand assistant and best friend in all these efforts, Shari Adamiak was – uh, she died – and this colonel came to her wake that was held at her apartment in Denver and he just came up to me and he said, “You know, of course, Bill Colby was killed trying to get the truth out on this to help us, and you guys have had your own losses, but we can’t look back, we can’t dwell on the negative. We can’t look back. We have to move forward.” And that’s my message to people, that’s always how we have to –

AB: I know, but if you believe what you just told me, then –

SG: It’s not a belief. I know it’s true, I mean I know it…

AB: Okay, if you know it’s true what you just told me, then that means they will kill to prevent any really serious damage. They will kill to stop any really serious damage. Therefore –

SG: If they can get away with it. Remember, those were the early days. We didn’t have the systems we have in place today.

AB: Doctor, if they can get away with killing a former CIA director, they can sure get away with killing an emergency room doctor.

SG: Well, perhaps. But, except, I’m – he was doing this in a very clandestine way. I am not doing what I’m doing in a clandestine way.

AB: True enough.

SG: And, the other thing to remember is that we’re much more sophisticated now than we were back in the mid 90s when this happened. We have enormous support within some of the groups that are running these covert projects who want to see this happen and I don’t lose any sleep. I don’t lose one minute of sleep over this, and none of the military witnesses working with me should. Now, it’s not to say it’s risk-free. You know, one of the things I say to people is that my god, you know, when I leave here to go back to my hotel here at Mt. Shasta, I could be hit by a Mack truck out of control coming down the mountain and be killed. There are risks with everything we do. But you also have to look at the benefit. If we’re being visited by intelligent life out there, and if there are covert programs that are sitting on technologies that could give us an entirely sustainable, long-term civilization without the need for damaging the environment, without the need for 80% of the world’s population living in abject poverty, is it not worth some risk? Well, it is! Now, I mean, I hate to sound clinical about this like a doctor talking about the risk and benefit ratios, but in reality, that’s what it really comes down to, isn’t it? And if we’re not willing to step up to the plate on something of this importance, then we’re really not worth breathing the free air of Earth.

AB: I’m with you. I’m certainly with you.

SG: I mean, this is why you’re so great for doing this kind of show and letting someone like me talk to millions of people about what’s really going on.
Also, John DeCamp (author of The Franklin Coverup: and one of Bill Colby’s best friends, talks about their involvement with investigating a scandal in Nebraska in the late 80s that led to uncovering a very rogue and sophisticated pedophile ring that used orphan kids, runaways and also abducted children in a network of extremely corrupt activity. This includes child prostitution and sex parties in Washington DC involving prominent politicians, businessmen and media personalities; drug trafficking; CIA operated “mind control” experiments, conducted in Offutt U.S. Air Force Base near Omaha. John DeCamp also reveals a conversation he had with Bill Colby 2 weeks before his mysterious death. Colby tells John what he had been up to and what he was going to continue to do to help the world with his specific expertise and integrity.



Nervous System Manipulation by Electromagnetic Fields From Monitors




Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONThe invention relates to the stimulation of the human nervous system by an electromagnetic field applied externally to the body. A neurological effect of external electric fields has been mentioned by Wiener (1958), in a discussion of the bunching of brain waves through nonlinear interactions. The electric field was arranged to provide “a direct electrical driving of the brain”. Wiener describes the field as set up by a 10 Hz alternating voltage of 400 V applied in a room between ceiling and ground. Brennan (1992) describes in U.S. Pat. No. 5,169,380 an apparatus for alleviating disruptions in circadian rythms of a mammal, in which an alternating electric field is applied across the head of the subject by two electrodes placed a short distance from the skin.

A device involving a field electrode as well as a contact electrode is the “Graham Potentializer” mentioned by Hutchison (1991). This relaxation device uses motion, light and sound as well as an alternating electric field applied mainly to the head. The contact electrode is a metal bar in Ohmic contact with the bare feet of the subject, and the field electrode is a hemispherical metal headpiece placed several inches from the subject’s head.

In these three electric stimulation methods the external electric field is applied predominantly to the head, so that electric currents are induced in the brain in the physical manner governed by electrodynamics. Such currents can be largely avoided by applying the field not to the head, but rather to skin areas away from the head. Certain cutaneous receptors may then be stimulated and they would provide a signal input into the brain along the natural pathways of afferent nerves. It has been found that, indeed, physiological effects can be induced in this manner by very weak electric fields, if they are pulsed with a frequency near ½ Hz. The observed effects include ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowziness, the feeling of pressure at a centered spot on the lower edge of the brow, seeing moving patterns of dark purple and greenish yellow with the eyes closed, a tonic smile, a tense feeling in the stomach, sudden loose stool, and sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used, and the skin area to which the field is applied. The sharp frequency dependence suggests involvement of a resonance mechanism.

It has been found that the resonance can be excited not only by externally applied pulsed electric fields, as discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,782,874, 5,899,922, 6,081,744, and 6,167,304, but also by pulsed magnetic fields, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,935,054 and 6,238,333, by weak heat pulses applied to the skin, as discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,800,481 and 6,091,994, and by subliminal acoustic pulses, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,302. Since the resonance is excited through sensory pathways, it is called a sensory resonance. In addition to the resonance near ½ Hz, a sensory resonance has been found near 2.4 Hz. The latter is characterized by the slowing of certain cortical processes, as discussed in the ‘481, ‘922, ‘302, ‘744, ‘944, and ‘304 patents.

The excitation of sensory resonances through weak heat pulses applied to the skin provides a clue about what is going on neurologically. Cutaneous temperature-sensing receptors are known to fire spontaneously. These nerves spike somewhat randomly around an average rate that depends on skin temperature. Weak heat pulses delivered to the skin in periodic fashion will therefore cause a slight frequency modulation (fm) in the spike patterns generated by the nerves. Since stimulation through other sensory modalities results in similar physiological effects, it is believed that frequency modulation of spontaneous afferent neural spiking patterns occurs there as well.

It is instructive to apply this notion to the stimulation by weak electric field pulses administered to the skin. The externally generated fields induce electric current pulses in the underlying tissue, but the current density is much too small for firing an otherwise quiescent nerve. However, in experiments with adapting stretch receptors of the crayfish, Terzuolo and Bullock (1956) have observed that very small electric fields can suffice for modulating the firing of already active nerves. Such a modulation may occur in the electric field stimulation under discussion.

Further understanding may be gained by considering the electric charges that accumulate on the skin as a result of the induced tissue currents. Ignoring thermodynamics, one would expect the accumulated polarization charges to be confined strictly to the outer surface of the skin. But charge density is caused by a slight excess in positive or negative ions, and thermal motion distributes the ions through a thin layer. This implies that the externally applied electric field actually penetrates a short distance into the tissue, instead of stopping abruptly at the outer skin surface. In this manner a considerable fraction of the applied field may be brought to bear on some cutaneous nerve endings, so that a slight modulation of the type noted by Terzuolo and Bullock may indeed occur.

The mentioned physiological effects are observed only when the strength of the electric field on the skin lies in a certain range, called the effective intensity window. There also is a bulk effect, in that weaker fields suffice when the field is applied to a larger skin area. These effects are discussed in detail in the ‘922 patent.

Since the spontaneous spiking of the nerves is rather random and the frequency modulation induced by the pulsed field is very shallow, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for the fm signal contained in the spike trains along the afferent nerves is so small as to make recovery of the fm signal from a single nerve fiber impossibile. But application of the field over a large skin area causes simultaneous stimulation of many cutaneous nerves, and the fm modulation is then coherent from nerve to nerve. Therefore, if the afferent signals are somehow summed in the brain, the fm modulations add while the spikes from different nerves mix and interlace. In this manner the S/N can be increased by appropriate neural processing. The matter is discussed in detail in the ‘874 patent. Another increase in sensitivity is due to involving a resonance mechanism, wherein considerable neural circuit oscillations can result from weak excitations.

An easily detectable physiological effect of an excited ½ Hz sensory resonance is ptosis of the eyelids. As discussed in the ‘922 patent, the ptosis test involves first closing the eyes about half way. Holding this eyelid position, the eyes are rolled upward, while giving up voluntary control of the eyelids. The eyelid position is then determined by the state of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, the pressure excerted on the eyeballs by the partially closed eyelids increases parasympathetic activity. The eyelid position thereby becomes somewhat labile, as manifested by a slight flutter. The labile state is sensitive to very small shifts in autonomic state. The ptosis influences the extent to which the pupil is hooded by the eyelid, and thus how much light is admitted to the eye. Hence, the depth of the ptosis is seen by the subject, and can be graded on a scale from 0 to 10.

In the initial stages of the excitation of the ½ Hz sensory resonance, a downward drift is detected in the ptosis frequency, defined as the stimulation frequency for which maximum ptosis is obtained. This drift is believed to be caused by changes in the chemical milieu of the resonating neural circuits. It is thought that the resonance causes perturbations of chemical concentrations somewhere in the brain, and that these perturbations spread by diffusion to nearby resonating circuits. This effect, called “chemical detuning”, can be so strong that ptosis is lost altogether when the stimulation frequency is kept constant in the initial stages of the excitation. Since the stimulation then falls somewhat out of tune, the resonance decreases in amplitude and chemical detuning eventually diminishes. This causes the ptosis frequency to shift back up, so that the stimulation is more in tune and the ptosis can develop again. As a result, for fixed stimulation frequencies in a certain range, the ptosis slowly cycles with a frequency of several minutes. The matter is discussed in the ‘302 patent.

The stimulation frequencies at which specific physiological effects occur depend somewhat on the autonomic nervous system state, and probably on the endocrine state as well.

Weak magnetic fields that are pulsed with a sensory resonance frequency can induce the same physiological effects as pulsed electric fields. Unlike the latter however, the magnetic fields penetrate biological tissue with nearly undiminished strength. Eddy currents in the tissue drive electric charges to the skin, where the charge distributions are subject to thermal smearing in much the same way as in electric field stimulation, so that the same physiological effects develop. Details are discussed in the ‘054 patent.



I claim:

1. A method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the subject having a sensory resonance frequency, the method comprising:
creating a video signal for displaying an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity;
modulating the video signal for pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and
setting the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency.
2. A computer program for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the computer program comprising:
a display routine for displaying an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity;
a pulse routine for pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and
a frequency routine that can be internally controlled by the subject, for setting the frequency;
whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation.
3. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulsing has an amplitude and the program further comprises an amplitude routine for control of the amplitude by the subject.
4. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulse routine comprises:
a timing procedure for timing the pulsing; and
an extrapolation procedure for improving the accuracy of the timing procedure.
5. The computer program of claim 2, further comprising a variability routine for introducing variability in the pulsing.
6. Hardware means for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor being responsive to a video stream and emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the image having an intensity, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the hardware means comprising:
pulse generator for generating voltage pulses;
means, responsive to the voltage pulses, for modulating the video stream to pulse the image intensity;
whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation.
7. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a composite video signal that has a pseudo-dc level, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for pulsing the pseudo-dc level.
8. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a television broadcast signal, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for frequency wobbling of the television broadcast signal.
9. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the monitor has a brightness adjustment terminal, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise a connection from the pulse generator to the brightness adjustment terminal.
10. A source of video stream for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the source of video stream comprising:
means for defining an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; and
means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz;
whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation.
11. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording medium that has recorded data, and the means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise an attribute of the recorded data.
12. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a computer program, and the means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise a pulse routine.
13. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording of a physical scene, and the means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise:
pulse generator for generating voltage pulses;
light source for illuminating the scene, the light source having a power level; and
modulation means, responsive to the voltage pulses, for pulsing the power level.
14. The source of video stream of claim 10, wherein the source is a DVD, the video stream comprises a luminance signal and a chrominance signal, and the means for subliminal pulsing of the image intensity comprise means for pulsing the luminance signal.
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War Is A Racket




War Is A Racket
By Major General Smedley Butler
Chapter 1: War Is A Racket
Chapter 2: Who Makes The Profits?
Chapter 3: Who Pays The Bills?
Chapter 4: How To Smash This Racket!
Chapter 5: To Hell With War!

Smedley Darlington Butler

Born: West Chester, Pa., July 30, 1881
Educated: Haverford School
Married: Ethel C. Peters, of Philadelphia, June 30, 1905
Awarded two congressional medals of honor:
1. capture of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914
2. capture of Ft. Riviere, Haiti, 1917
Distinguished service medal, 1919
Major General – United States Marine Corps
Retired Oct. 1, 1931
On leave of absence to act as Director of Dept. of Safety, Philadelphia, 1932
Lecturer — 1930’s
Republican Candidate for Senate, 1932
Died at Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, June 21, 1940
For more information about Major General Butler, contact the United States Marine Corps.

War Is A Racket

WAR is a racket. It always has been.

It is possibly the oldest, easily the most profitable, surely the most vicious. It is the only one international in scope. It is the only one in which the profits are reckoned in dollars and the losses in lives.

A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of the people. Only a small “inside” group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few, at the expense of the very many. Out of war a few people make huge fortunes.

In the World War [I] a mere handful garnered the profits of the conflict. At least 21,000 new millionaires and billionaires were made in the United States during the World War. That many admitted their huge blood gains in their income tax returns. How many other war millionaires falsified their tax returns no one knows.

How many of these war millionaires shouldered a rifle? How many of them dug a trench?
How many of them knew what it meant to go hungry in a rat-infested dug-out? How many of them spent sleepless, frightened nights, ducking shells and shrapnel and machine gun
bullets? How many of them parried a bayonet thrust of an enemy? How many of them were wounded or killed in battle?

Out of war nations acquire additional territory, if they are victorious. They just take it. This
newly acquired territory promptly is exploited by the few — the selfsame few who wrung
dollars out of blood in the war. The general public shoulders the bill.

And what is this bill?

This bill renders a horrible accounting. Newly placed gravestones. Mangled bodies.
Shattered minds. Broken hearts and homes. Economic instability. Depression and all its
attendant miseries. Back-breaking taxation for generations and generations.

For a great many years, as a soldier, I had a suspicion that war was a racket; not until I
retired to civil life did I fully realize it. Now that I see the international war clouds gathering, as they are today, I must face it and speak out.

Again they are choosing sides. France and Russia met and agreed to stand side by side. Italy and Austria hurried to make a similar agreement. Poland and Germany cast sheep’s eyes at each other, forgetting for the nonce [one unique occasion], their dispute over the Polish Corridor.

The assassination of King Alexander of Jugoslavia [Yugoslavia] complicated matters.
Jugoslavia and Hungary, long bitter enemies, were almost at each other’s throats. Italy was
ready to jump in. But France was waiting. So was Czechoslovakia. All of them are looking
ahead to war. Not the people — not those who fight and pay and die — only those who foment wars and remain safely at home to profit.

There are 40,000,000 men under arms in the world today, and our statesmen and diplomats have the temerity to say that war is not in the making.

Hell’s bells! Are these 40,000,000 men being trained to be dancers?

Not in Italy, to be sure. Premier Mussolini knows what they are being trained for. He, at
least, is frank enough to speak out. Only the other day, Il Duce in “International
Conciliation,” the publication of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, said:

“And above all, Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. . . .

War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the people who have the courage to meet it.”

Undoubtedly Mussolini means exactly what he says. His well-trained army, his great fleet of planes, and even his navy are ready for war — anxious for it, apparently. His recent stand at the side of Hungary in the latter’s dispute with Jugoslavia showed that. And the hurried mobilization of his troops on the Austrian border after the assassination of Dollfuss showed it too.

There are others in Europe too whose sabre rattling presages war, sooner or later.

Herr Hitler, with his rearming Germany and his constant demands for more and more arms, is an equal if not greater menace to peace. France only recently increased the term of military service for its youth from a year to eighteen months.

Yes, all over, nations are camping in their arms. The mad dogs of Europe are on the loose. In the Orient the maneuvering is more adroit. Back in 1904, when Russia and Japan fought, we kicked out our old friends the Russians and backed Japan. Then our very generous
international bankers were financing Japan. Now the trend is to poison us against the

What does the “open door” policy to China mean to us? Our trade with China is about $90,000,000 a year.

Or the Philippine Islands? We have spent about $600,000,000 in the Philippines in thirty-five years and we (our bankers and industrialists and speculators) have private investments there of less than $200,000,000.

Then, to save that China trade of about $90,000,000, or to protect these private investments of less than $200,000,000 in the Philippines, we would be all stirred up to hate Japan and go to war — a war that might well cost us tens of billions of dollars, hundreds of thousands of lives of Americans, and many more hundreds of thousands of physically maimed and mentally unbalanced men.

Of course, for this loss, there would be a compensating profit — fortunes would be made.
Millions and billions of dollars would be piled up. By a few. Munitions makers. Bankers.
Ship builders. Manufacturers. Meat packers. Speculators. They would fare well.

Yes, they are getting ready for another war. Why shouldn’t they? It pays high dividends.

But what does it profit the men who are killed? What does it profit their mothers and sisters, their wives and their sweethearts? What does it profit their children? What does it profit anyone except the very few to whom war means huge profits?

Yes, and what does it profit the nation?

Take our own case. Until 1898 we didn’t own a bit of territory outside the mainland of North America. At that time our national debt was a little more than $1,000,000,000. Then we became “internationally minded.” We forgot, or shunted aside, the advice of the Father of our country. We forgot George Washington’s warning about “entangling alliances.” We went to war.

We acquired outside territory. At the end of the World War period, as a direct result
of our fiddling in international affairs, our national debt had jumped to over $25,000,000,000. Our total favorable trade balance during the twenty-five-year period was about $24,000,000,000. Therefore, on a purely bookkeeping basis, we ran a little behind year for year, and that foreign trade might well have been ours without the wars.

It would have been far cheaper (not to say safer) for the average American who pays the bills to stay out of foreign entanglements. For a very few this racket, like bootlegging and other underworld rackets, brings fancy profits, but the cost of operations is always transferred to the people — who do not profit.


Who Makes The Profits?

The World War, rather our brief participation in it, has cost the United States some
$52,000,000,000. Figure it out. That means $400 to every American man, woman, and child. And we haven’t paid the debt yet. We are paying it, our children will pay it, and our
children’s children probably still will be paying the cost of that war.

The normal profits of a business concern in the United States are six, eight, ten, and
sometimes twelve percent. But war-time profits — ah! that is another matter — twenty, sixty, one hundred, three hundred, and even eighteen hundred per cent — the sky is the limit. All that traffic will bear. Uncle Sam has the money. Let’s get it.

Of course, it isn’t put that crudely in war time. It is dressed into speeches about patriotism, love of country, and “we must all put our shoulders to the wheel,” but the profits jump and leap and skyrocket — and are safely pocketed. Let’s just take a few examples:

Take our friends the du Ponts, the powder people — didn’t one of them testify before a
Senate committee recently that their powder won the war? Or saved the world for
democracy? Or something? How did they do in the war? They were a patriotic corporation.

Well, the average earnings of the du Ponts for the period 1910 to 1914 were $6,000,000 a
year. It wasn’t much, but the du Ponts managed to get along on it. Now let’s look at their
average yearly profit during the war years, 1914 to 1918. Fifty-eight million dollars a year
profit we find! Nearly ten times that of normal times, and the profits of normal times were
pretty good. An increase in profits of more than 950 per cent.

Take one of our little steel companies that patriotically shunted aside the making of rails and girders and bridges to manufacture war materials. Well, their 1910-1914 yearly earnings averaged $6,000,000. Then came the war. And, like loyal citizens, Bethlehem Steel promptly turned to munitions making. Did their profits jump — or did they let Uncle Sam in for a bargain? Well, their 1914-1918 average was $49,000,000 a year!

Or, let’s take United States Steel. The normal earnings during the five-year period prior to
the war were $105,000,000 a year. Not bad. Then along came the war and up went the
profits. The average yearly profit for the period 1914-1918 was $240,000,000. Not bad.

There you have some of the steel and powder earnings. Let’s look at something else. A little copper, perhaps. That always does well in war times.

Anaconda, for instance. Average yearly earnings during the pre-war years 1910-1914 of
$10,000,000. During the war years 1914-1918 profits leaped to $34,000,000 per year.

Or Utah Copper. Average of $5,000,000 per year during the 1910-1914 period. Jumped to an
average of $21,000,000 yearly profits for the war period.

Let’s group these five, with three smaller companies. The total yearly average profits of the pre-war period 1910-1914 were $137,480,000. Then along came the war. The average yearly profits for this group skyrocketed to $408,300,000. A little increase in profits of approximately 200 per cent.

Does war pay? It paid them. But they aren’t the only ones. There are still others. Let’s take

For the three-year period before the war the total profits of Central Leather Company were
$3,500,000. That was approximately $1,167,000 a year. Well, in 1916 Central Leather
returned a profit of $15,000,000, a small increase of 1,100 per cent. That’s all. The General
Chemical Company averaged a profit for the three years before the war of a little over
$800,000 a year. Came the war, and the profits jumped to $12,000,000. a leap of 1,400 per

International Nickel Company — and you can’t have a war without nickel — showed an
increase in profits from a mere average of $4,000,000 a year to $73,000,000 yearly. Not bad? An increase of more than 1,700 per cent.

American Sugar Refining Company averaged $2,000,000 a year for the three years before
the war. In 1916 a profit of $6,000,000 was recorded.

Listen to Senate Document No. 259. The Sixty-Fifth Congress, reporting on corporate
earnings and government revenues. Considering the profits of 122 meat packers, 153 cotton manufacturers, 299 garment makers, 49 steel plants, and 340 coal producers during the war.

Profits under 25 per cent were exceptional. For instance the coal companies made between
100 per cent and 7,856 per cent on their capital stock during the war. The Chicago packers
doubled and tripled their earnings.

And let us not forget the bankers who financed the great war. If anyone had the cream of the profits it was the bankers. Being partnerships rather than incorporated organizations, they do not have to report to stockholders. And their profits were as secret as they were immense. How the bankers made their millions and their billions I do not know, because those little secrets never become public — even before a Senate investigatory body.

But here’s how some of the other patriotic industrialists and speculators chiseled their way into war profits.

Take the shoe people. They like war. It brings business with abnormal profits. They made
huge profits on sales abroad to our allies. Perhaps, like the munitions manufacturers and
armament makers, they also sold to the enemy. For a dollar is a dollar whether it comes from Germany or from France. But they did well by Uncle Sam too. For instance, they sold Uncle Sam 35,000,000 pairs of hobnailed service shoes. There were 4,000,000 soldiers. Eight pairs, and more, to a soldier. My regiment during the war had only one pair to a soldier. Some of these shoes probably are still in existence. They were good shoes. But when the war was over Uncle Sam has a matter of 25,000,000 pairs left over. Bought — and paid for. Profits recorded and pocketed.

There was still lots of leather left. So the leather people sold your Uncle Sam hundreds of
thousands of McClellan saddles for the cavalry. But there wasn’t any American cavalry
overseas! Somebody had to get rid of this leather, however. Somebody had to make a profit
in it — so we had a lot of McClellan saddles. And we probably have those yet.

Also somebody had a lot of mosquito netting. They sold your Uncle Sam 20,000,000
mosquito nets for the use of the soldiers overseas. I suppose the boys were expected to put it over them as they tried to sleep in muddy trenches — one hand scratching cooties on their backs and the other making passes at scurrying rats. Well, not one of these mosquito nets ever got to France!

Anyhow, these thoughtful manufacturers wanted to make sure that no soldier would be
without his mosquito net, so 40,000,000 additional yards of mosquito netting were sold to
Uncle Sam.

There were pretty good profits in mosquito netting in those days, even if there were no
mosquitoes in France. I suppose, if the war had lasted just a little longer, the enterprising
mosquito netting manufacturers would have sold your Uncle Sam a couple of consignments of mosquitoes to plant in France so that more mosquito netting would be in order.

Airplane and engine manufacturers felt they, too, should get their just profits out of this war. Why not? Everybody else was getting theirs. So $1,000,000,000 — count them if you live long enough — was spent by Uncle Sam in building airplane engines that never left the ground! Not one plane, or motor, out of the billion dollars worth ordered, ever got into a battle in France. Just the same the manufacturers made their little profit of 30, 100, or
perhaps 300 per cent.

Undershirts for soldiers cost 14¢ [cents] to make and uncle Sam paid 30¢ to 40¢ each for
them — a nice little profit for the undershirt manufacturer. And the stocking manufacturer and the uniform manufacturers and the cap manufacturers and the steel helmet manufacturers — all got theirs.

Why, when the war was over some 4,000,000 sets of equipment — knapsacks and the things that go to fill them — crammed warehouses on this side. Now they are being scrapped because the regulations have changed the contents. But the manufacturers collected their wartime profits on them — and they will do it all over again the next time.

There were lots of brilliant ideas for profit making during the war.

One very versatile patriot sold Uncle Sam twelve dozen 48-inch wrenches. Oh, they were
very nice wrenches. The only trouble was that there was only one nut ever made that was
large enough for these wrenches. That is the one that holds the turbines at Niagara Falls.
Well, after Uncle Sam had bought them and the manufacturer had pocketed the profit, the
wrenches were put on freight cars and shunted all around the United States in an effort to
find a use for them. When the Armistice was signed it was indeed a sad blow to the wrench
manufacturer. He was just about to make some nuts to fit the wrenches. Then he planned to sell these, too, to your Uncle Sam.

Still another had the brilliant idea that colonels shouldn’t ride in automobiles, nor should
they even ride on horseback. One has probably seen a picture of Andy Jackson riding in a
buckboard. Well, some 6,000 buckboards were sold to Uncle Sam for the use of colonels!
Not one of them was used. But the buckboard manufacturer got his war profit.

The shipbuilders felt they should come in on some of it, too. They built a lot of ships that
made a lot of profit. More than $3,000,000,000 worth. Some of the ships were all right. But $635,000,000 worth of them were made of wood and wouldn’t float! The seams opened up — and they sank. We paid for them, though. And somebody pocketed the profits.

It has been estimated by statisticians and economists and researchers that the war cost your Uncle Sam $52,000,000,000. Of this sum, $39,000,000,000 was expended in the actual war itself. This expenditure yielded $16,000,000,000 in profits. That is how the 21,000 billionaires and millionaires got that way. This $16,000,000,000 profits is not to be sneezed at. It is quite a tidy sum. And it went to a very few.

The Senate (Nye) committee probe of the munitions industry and its wartime profits, despite its sensational disclosures, hardly has scratched the surface.

Even so, it has had some effect. The State Department has been studying “for some time”
methods of keeping out of war. The War Department suddenly decides it has a wonderful
plan to spring. The Administration names a committee — with the War and Navy
Departments ably represented under the chairmanship of a Wall Street speculator — to limit profits in war time. To what extent isn’t suggested. Hmmm. Possibly the profits of 300 and 600 and 1,600 per cent of those who turned blood into gold in the World War would be limited to some smaller figure.

Apparently, however, the plan does not call for any limitation of losses — that is, the losses of those who fight the war. As far as I have been able to ascertain there is nothing in the scheme to limit a soldier to the loss of but one eye, or one arm, or to limit his wounds to one or two or three. Or to limit the loss of life.

There is nothing in this scheme, apparently, that says not more than 12 per cent of a regiment shall be wounded in battle, or that not more than 7 per cent in a division shall be killed.

Of course, the committee cannot be bothered with such trifling matters.


Who Pays The Bills?

Who provides the profits — these nice little profits of 20, 100, 300, 1,500 and 1,800 per cent? We all pay them — in taxation. We paid the bankers their profits when we bought Liberty Bonds at $100.00 and sold them back at $84 or $86 to the bankers. These bankers collected  $100 plus. It was a simple manipulation. The bankers control the security marts. It was easy for them to depress the price of these bonds. Then all of us — the people — got frightened and sold the bonds at $84 or $86. The bankers bought them. Then these same bankers stimulated a boom and government bonds went to par — and above. Then the bankers collected their profits.

But the soldier pays the biggest part of the bill.

If you don’t believe this, visit the American cemeteries on the battlefields abroad. Or visit
any of the veteran’s hospitals in the United States. On a tour of the country, in the midst of which I am at the time of this writing, I have visited eighteen government hospitals for
veterans. In them are a total of about 50,000 destroyed men — men who were the pick of the nation eighteen years ago. The very able chief surgeon at the government hospital; at
Milwaukee, where there are 3,800 of the living dead, told me that mortality among veterans is three times as great as among those who stayed at home.

Boys with a normal viewpoint were taken out of the fields and offices and factories and
classrooms and put into the ranks. There they were remolded; they were made over; they
were made to “about face”; to regard murder as the order of the day. They were put shoulder to shoulder and, through mass psychology, they were entirely changed. We used them for a couple of years and trained them to think nothing at all of killing or of being killed.

Then, suddenly, we discharged them and told them to make another “about face” ! This time they had to do their own readjustment, sans [without] mass psychology, sans officers’ aid and advice and sans nation-wide propaganda. We didn’t need them any more. So we scattered them about without any “three-minute” or “Liberty Loan” speeches or parades.

Many, too many, of these fine young boys are eventually destroyed, mentally, because they
could not make that final “about face” alone.

In the government hospital in Marion, Indiana, 1,800 of these boys are in pens! Five hundred of them in a barracks with steel bars and wires all around outside the buildings and on the porches. These already have been mentally destroyed. These boys don’t even look like human beings. Oh, the looks on their faces! Physically, they are in good shape; mentally, they are gone.

There are thousands and thousands of these cases, and more and more are coming in all the time. The tremendous excitement of the war, the sudden cutting off of that excitement — the young boys couldn’t stand it.

That’s a part of the bill.

So much for the dead — they have paid their part of the war profits.

So much for the mentally and physically wounded — they are paying now their share of the war profits.

But the others paid, too — they paid with heartbreaks when they tore themselves
away from their firesides and their families to don the uniform of Uncle Sam — on which a
profit had been made.

They paid another part in the training camps where they were regimented and drilled while others took their jobs and their places in the lives of their communities. The paid for it in the trenches where they shot and were shot; where they were hungry for days at a time; where they slept in the mud and the cold and in the rain — with the moans and shrieks of the dying for a horrible lullaby.

But don’t forget — the soldier paid part of the dollars and cents bill too.

Up to and including the Spanish-American War, we had a prize system, and soldiers and
sailors fought for money. During the Civil War they were paid bonuses, in many instances,
before they went into service. The government, or states, paid as high as $1,200 for an
enlistment. In the Spanish-American War they gave prize money. When we captured any
vessels, the soldiers all got their share — at least, they were supposed to. Then it was found that we could reduce the cost of wars by taking all the prize money and keeping it, but conscripting [drafting] the soldier anyway. Then soldiers couldn’t bargain for their labor, Everyone else could bargain, but the soldier couldn’t.

Napoleon once said, “All men are enamored of decorations . . . they positively hunger for them.”

So by developing the Napoleonic system — the medal business — the government learned it could get soldiers for less money, because the boys liked to be decorated. Until the Civil War there were no medals. Then the Congressional Medal of Honor was handed out. It made enlistments easier. After the Civil War no new medals were issued until the
Spanish-American War.

In the World War, we used propaganda to make the boys accept conscription. They were
made to feel ashamed if they didn’t join the army.

So vicious was this war propaganda that even God was brought into it. With few exceptions
our clergymen joined in the clamor to kill, kill, kill. To kill the Germans. God is on our side
. . it is His will that the Germans be killed.

And in Germany, the good pastors called upon the Germans to kill the allies . . . to please the same God. That was a part of the general propaganda, built up to make people war conscious and murder conscious.

Beautiful ideals were painted for our boys who were sent out to die. This was the “war to end all wars.” This was the “war to make the world safe for democracy.” No one mentioned to them, as they marched away, that their going and their dying would mean huge war profits.

No one told these American soldiers that they might be shot down by bullets made by their
own brothers here. No one told them that the ships on which they were going to cross might be torpedoed by submarines built with United States patents. They were just told it was to be a “glorious adventure.”

Thus, having stuffed patriotism down their throats, it was decided to make them help pay for the war, too. So, we gave them the large salary of $30 a month. All they had to do for this munificent sum was to leave their dear ones behind, give up their jobs, lie in swampy trenches, eat canned willy (when they could get it) and kill and kill and kill . . . and be killed.

But wait!

Half of that wage (just a little more than a riveter in a shipyard or a laborer in a munitions
factory safe at home made in a day) was promptly taken from him to support his dependents, so that they would not become a charge upon his community. Then we made him pay what amounted to accident insurance — something the employer pays for in an enlightened state — and that cost him $6 a month. He had less than $9 a month left.

Then, the most crowning insolence of all — he was virtually blackjacked into paying for his own ammunition, clothing, and food by being made to buy Liberty Bonds. Most soldiers got no money at all on pay days.

We made them buy Liberty Bonds at $100 and then we bought them back — when they came back from the war and couldn’t find work — at $84 and $86. And the soldiers bought about $2,000,000,000 worth of these bonds!

Yes, the soldier pays the greater part of the bill. His family pays too. They pay it in the same heart-break that he does. As he suffers, they suffer. At nights, as he lay in the trenches and watched shrapnel burst about him, they lay home in their beds and tossed sleeplessly — his father, his mother, his wife, his sisters, his brothers, his sons, and his daughters.

When he returned home minus an eye, or minus a leg or with his mind broken, they suffered too — as much as and even sometimes more than he. Yes, and they, too, contributed their dollars to the profits of the munitions makers and bankers and shipbuilders and the manufacturers and the speculators made. They, too, bought Liberty Bonds and contributed to the profit of the bankers after the Armistice in the hocus-pocus of manipulated Liberty Bond prices.

And even now the families of the wounded men and of the mentally broken and those who
never were able to readjust themselves are still suffering and still paying.


How To Smash This Racket!

WELL, it’s a racket, all right.

A few profit — and the many pay. But there is a way to stop it. You can’t end it by
disarmament conferences. You can’t eliminate it by peace parleys at Geneva.

Well-meaning but impractical groups can’t wipe it out by resolutions. It can be smashed effectively only by taking the profit out of war.

The only way to smash this racket is to conscript capital and industry and labor before the
nations manhood can be conscripted. One month before the Government can conscript the young men of the nation — it must conscript capital and industry and labor. Let the officers and the directors and the high-powered executives of our armament factories and our munitions makers and our shipbuilders and our airplane builders and the manufacturers of all the other things that provide profit in war time as well as the bankers and the speculators, be conscripted — to get $30 a month, the same wage as the lads in the trenches get.

Let the workers in these plants get the same wages — all the workers, all presidents, all
executives, all directors, all managers, all bankers — yes, and all generals and all admirals
and all officers and all politicians and all government office holders — everyone in the nation be restricted to a total monthly income not to exceed that paid to the soldier in the trenches!

Let all these kings and tycoons and masters of business and all those workers in industry and all our senators and governors and majors pay half of their monthly $30 wage to their
families and pay war risk insurance and buy Liberty Bonds.

Why shouldn’t they?

They aren’t running any risk of being killed or of having their bodies mangled or their minds shattered. They aren’t sleeping in muddy trenches. They aren’t hungry. The soldiers are!

Give capital and industry and labor thirty days to think it over and you will find, by that time, there will be no war. That will smash the war racket — that and nothing else.

Maybe I am a little too optimistic. Capital still has some say. So capital won’t permit the
taking of the profit out of war until the people — those who do the suffering and still pay the price — make up their minds that those they elect to office shall do their bidding, and not that of the profiteers.

Another step necessary in this fight to smash the war racket is the limited plebiscite to
determine whether a war should be declared. A plebiscite not of all the voters but merely of those who would be called upon to do the fighting and dying. There wouldn’t be very much sense in having a 76-year-old president of a munitions factory or the flat-footed head of an international banking firm or the cross-eyed manager of a uniform manufacturing plant — all of whom see visions of tremendous profits in the event of war — voting on whether the nation should go to war or not. They never would be called upon to shoulder arms — to sleep in a trench and to be shot. Only those who would be called upon to risk their lives for their country should have the privilege of voting to determine whether the nation should go to war.

There is ample precedent for restricting the voting to those affected. Many of our states have restrictions on those permitted to vote. In most, it is necessary to be able to read and write before you may vote. In some, you must own property. It would be a simple matter each year for the men coming of military age to register in their communities as they did in the draft during the World War and be examined physically. Those who could pass and who would therefore be called upon to bear arms in the event of war would be eligible to vote in a limited plebiscite. They should be the ones to have the power to decide — and not a Congress few of whose members are within the age limit and fewer still of whom are in physical condition to bear arms. Only those who must suffer should have the right to vote.

A third step in this business of smashing the war racket is to make certain that our military forces are truly forces for defense only.

At each session of Congress the question of further naval appropriations comes up. The
swivel-chair admirals of Washington (and there are always a lot of them) are very adroit
lobbyists. And they are smart. They don’t shout that “We need a lot of battleships to war on this nation or that nation.” Oh no. First of all, they let it be known that America is menaced by a great naval power. Almost any day, these admirals will tell you, the great fleet of this supposed enemy will strike suddenly and annihilate 125,000,000 people. Just like that. Then they begin to cry for a larger navy. For what? To fight the enemy? Oh my, no. Oh, no. For defense purposes only.

Then, incidentally, they announce maneuvers in the Pacific. For defense. Uh, huh.

The Pacific is a great big ocean. We have a tremendous coastline on the Pacific. Will the
maneuvers be off the coast, two or three hundred miles? Oh, no. The maneuvers will be two thousand, yes, perhaps even thirty-five hundred miles, off the coast.

The Japanese, a proud people, of course will be pleased beyond expression to see the United States fleet so close to Nippon’s shores. Even as pleased as would be the residents of California were they to dimly discern through the morning mist, the Japanese fleet playing at war games off Los Angeles.

The ships of our navy, it can be seen, should be specifically limited, by law, to within 200
miles of our coastline. Had that been the law in 1898 the Maine would never have gone to
Havana Harbor. She never would have been blown up. There would have been no war with
Spain with its attendant loss of life. Two hundred miles is ample, in the opinion of experts,
for defense purposes. Our nation cannot start an offensive war if its ships can’t go further
than 200 miles from the coastline. Planes might be permitted to go as far as 500 miles from the coast for purposes of reconnaissance. And the army should never leave the territorial limits of our nation.

To summarize: Three steps must be taken to smash the war racket.

1. We must take the profit out of war.

2. We must permit the youth of the land who would bear arms to decide whether or not
there should be war.

3. We must limit our military forces to home defense purposes.


To Hell With War!

I am not a fool as to believe that war is a thing of the past. I know the people do not want
war, but there is no use in saying we cannot be pushed into another war.

Looking back, Woodrow Wilson was re-elected president in 1916 on a platform that he had
“kept us out of war” and on the implied promise that he would “keep us out of war.” Yet,
five months later he asked Congress to declare war on Germany.

In that five-month interval the people had not been asked whether they had changed their minds. The 4,000,000 young men who put on uniforms and marched or sailed away were not asked whether they wanted to go forth to suffer and die.

Then what caused our government to change its mind so suddenly?


An allied commission, it may be recalled, came over shortly before the war declaration and
called on the President. The President summoned a group of advisers. The head of the
commission spoke. Stripped of its diplomatic language, this is what he told the President and his group:

“There is no use kidding ourselves any longer. The cause of the allies is lost. We now owe you (American bankers, American munitions makers, American manufacturers, American
speculators, American exporters) five or six billion dollars.

If we lose (and without the help of the United States we must lose) we, England, France and Italy, cannot pay back this money . . . and Germany won’t.

So . . . ”

Had secrecy been outlawed as far as war negotiations were concerned, and had the press
been invited to be present at that conference, or had radio been available to broadcast the
proceedings, America never would have entered the World War. But this conference, like all war discussions, was shrouded in utmost secrecy. When our boys were sent off to war they were told it was a “war to make the world safe for democracy” and a “war to end all wars.”

Well, eighteen years after, the world has less of democracy than it had then. Besides, what
business is it of ours whether Russia or Germany or England or France or Italy or Austria
live under democracies or monarchies? Whether they are Fascists or Communists? Our
problem is to preserve our own democracy.

And very little, if anything, has been accomplished to assure us that the World War was
really the war to end all wars.

Yes, we have had disarmament conferences and limitations of arms conferences. They don’t mean a thing. One has just failed; the results of another have been nullified. We send our professional soldiers and our sailors and our politicians and our diplomats to these conferences. And what happens?

The professional soldiers and sailors don’t want to disarm. No admiral wants to be without a ship. No general wants to be without a command. Both mean men without jobs. They are not for disarmament. They cannot be for limitations of arms. And at all these conferences,
lurking in the background but all-powerful, just the same, are the sinister agents of those who profit by war. They see to it that these conferences do not disarm or seriously limit

The chief aim of any power at any of these conferences has not been to achieve disarmament to prevent war but rather to get more armament for itself and less for any potential foe.

There is only one way to disarm with any semblance of practicability. That is for all nations
to get together and scrap every ship, every gun, every rifle, every tank, every war plane.
Even this, if it were possible, would not be enough.

The next war, according to experts, will be fought not with battleships, not by artillery, not
with rifles and not with machine guns. It will be fought with deadly chemicals and gases.

Secretly each nation is studying and perfecting newer and ghastlier means of annihilating its foes wholesale. Yes, ships will continue to be built, for the shipbuilders must make their profits. And guns still will be manufactured and powder and rifles will be made, for the munitions makers must make their huge profits. And the soldiers, of course, must wear uniforms, for the manufacturer must make their war profits too.

But victory or defeat will be determined by the skill and ingenuity of our scientists.

If we put them to work making poison gas and more and more fiendish mechanical and
explosive instruments of destruction, they will have no time for the constructive job of
building greater prosperity for all peoples. By putting them to this useful job, we can all
make more money out of peace than we can out of war — even the munitions makers.

So…I say,


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Smedley Darlington Butler[1] (July 30, 1881 – June 21, 1940) was a United States Marine Corps major general, the highest rank authorized at that time, and at the time of his death the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. During his 34-year career as a Marine, he participated in military actions in the Philippines, China, in Central America and the Caribbean during the Banana Wars, and France in World War I. Butler is well known for having later become an outspoken critic of U.S. wars and their consequences, as well as exposing the Business Plot, an alleged plan to overthrow the U.S. government.

By the end of his career, Butler had received 16 medals, five for heroism. He is one of 19 men to receive the Medal of Honor twice, one of three to be awarded both the Marine Corps Brevet Medal and the Medal of Honor, and the only Marine to be awarded the Brevet Medal and two Medals of Honor, all for separate actions.

In 1933, he became involved in a controversy known as the Business Plot, when he told a congressional committee that a group of wealthy industrialists were planning a military coup to overthrow Franklin D. Roosevelt, with Butler selected to lead a march of veterans to become dictator, similar to other Fascist regimes at that time. The individuals involved all denied the existence of a plot and the media ridiculed the allegations. A final report by a special House of Representatives Committee confirmed some of Butler’s testimony.

In 1935, Butler wrote a book entitled War Is a Racket, where he described and criticized the workings of the United States in its foreign actions and wars, such as those he was a part of, including the American corporations and other imperialist motivations behind them. After retiring from service, he became a popular activist, speaking at meetings organized by veterans, pacifists, and church groups in the 1930s.


Holy Blood | Holy Grail




Holy Blood ~ Holy Grail

By Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln

Click on Following Link for Free Download Entire Book


CHAPTER 1 ~ Village Of Mystery


At the start of our search we did not know precisely what we were looking for or, for that matter, looking at. We had no theories and no hypotheses, we had set out to prove nothing. On the contrary, we were simply trying to find an explanation for a curious little enigma of the late nineteenth century. The conclusions we eventually reached were not postulated in advance. We were led to them, step by step, as if the evidence we accumulated had a mind of its own, was directing us of its own accord. We believed at first that we were dealing with a strictly local mystery an intriguing mystery certainly, but a mystery of essentially minor significance, confined to a village in the south of France. We believed at first that the mystery, although it involved many fascinating historical strands, was primarily of academic interest. We believed that our investigation might help to illumine certain aspects of Western history, but we never dreamed that it might entail re-writing them. Still less did we dream that whatever we discovered could be of any real contemporary relevance and explosive contemporary relevance at that.

Our quest began – for it was indeed a quest with a more or less straightforward story. At first glance this story was not markedly different from numerous other “treasure stories’ or “unsolved mysteries’ which abound in the history and folklore of almost every rural region. A version of it had been publicised in France, where it attracted considerable interest but was not to our knowledge at the time accorded any inordinate consequence. As we subsequently learned, there were a number of errors in this version. For the moment, however, we must recount the tale as it was published during the 1960s, and as we first came to know of it.”

Rennes-leChateau and Berenger Sauniere

On June 1st, 1885 the tiny French village of Rennes-leChateau received a new parish priest. The cure’s name was Berenger Sauniere. He was a robust, handsome, energetic and, it would seem, highly intelligent man aged thirty-three. In seminary school not long before he had seemed destined for a promising clerical career. Certainly he had seemed destined for something more important than a remote village in the eastern foothills of the Pyrenees. Yet at some point he seems to have incurred the displeasure of his superiors. What precisely he did, if anything, remains unclear, but it soon thwarted all prospects of advancement. And it was perhaps to rid themselves of him that his superiors sent him to the parish of Rennes-leChateau.

At the time Rennes-leChateau housed only two hundred people. It was a tiny hamlet perched on a steep mountaintop, approximately twenty-five miles from Carcassonne.
To another man, the place might have constituted exile a life sentence in a remote provincial backwater, far from the civilised amenities of the age, far from any stimulus for an eager and inquiring mind. No doubt it was a blow to Sauniere’s ambition. Nevertheless there were certain compensations. Sauniere was a native of the region, having been born and raised only a few miles distant, in the village of Montazels. Whatever its deficiencies, therefore, Rennes-leChateau must have been very like home, with all the comforts of childhood familiarity. Between 1885 and 1891 Sauniere’s income averaged, in francs, the equivalent of six pounds sterling per year -hardly opulence, but pretty much what one would expect for a rural cure in late nineteenth-century France. Together with gratuities provided by his parishioners, it appears to have been sufficient for survival, if not for any extravagance. During those six years Sauniere seems to have led a pleasant enough life, and a placid one.

He hunted and fished in the mountains and streams of his boyhood. He read voraciously, perfected his Latin, learned Greek, embarked on the study of Hebrew. He employed, as housekeeper and servant, an eighteen-year old peasant girl named Marie Denarnaud, who was to be his lifelong companion and confidante. He paid frequent visits to his friend, the Abbe Henri Boudet, cure-of the neighbouring village of Rennes-les-Bains. And under Boudet’s tutelage he immersed himself in the turbulent history of the region a history whose residues were constantly present around him.

A few miles to the south-east of Rennes-leChateau, for example, looms another peak, called Bezu, surmounted by the ruins of a medieval fortress, which was once a preceptory of the Knights Templar. On a third peak, a mile or so east of Rennes-leChateau, stand the ruins of the chateau of Blanchefort, ancestral home of Bertrand de Blanchefort, fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar, who presided over that famous order in the mid-twelfth century. Rennes-leChateau and its environs had been on the ancient pilgrim route, which ran from Northern Europe to Santiago de Compastela in Spain. And the entire region was steeped in evocative legends, in echoes of a rich, dramatic and often bloodsoaked past, For some time Sauniere had wanted to restore the village church of Rennes-leChateau. Consecrated to the Magdalene in 1059, this dilapidated edifice stood on the foundations of a still older Visigoth structure dating from the sixth century. By the late nineteenth century it was, not surprisingly, in a state of almost hopeless disrepair. In 1891, encouraged by his friend Boudet, Sauniere embarked on a modest restoration, borrowing a small sum from the village funds. In the course of his endeavours he removed the altar-stone, which rested on two archaic Visigoth columns.
One of these columns proved to be hollow. Inside the cure found four parchments preserved in sealed wooden tubes. Two of these parchments are said to have comprised genealogies, one dating from 1244, the other from 1644. The two remaining documents had apparently been composed in the 1780s by one of Sauniere’s predecessors as cure of Rennes-leChateau, the Abbe Antoine Bigou. Bigou had also been personal chaplain to the noble Blanchefort family who, on the eve of the French Revolution, were still among the most prominent local landowners. The two parchments from Bigou’s time would appear to be pious Latin texts, excerpts from the New Testament. At least ostensibly. But on one of the parchments the words are run incoherently together, with no space between them, and a number of utterly superfluous letters have been inserted. And on the second parchment lines are indiscriminately truncated unevenly, sometimes in the middle of a word while certain letters are conspicuously raised above the others. In reality these parchments comprise a sequence of ingenious ciphers or codes. Some of them are fantastically complex and unpredictable, defying even a computer, and insoluble without the requisite key. The following decipherment has appeared in French works devoted to Rennes-leChateau, and in two of our films on the subject made for the BBC. BERG ERE PAS DE TENTATION QUE POUSSIN TENIERS GAR DENT LA CLEF PAX DCLXXXI PAR LA CROIX ET CE CHEVAL DE DIEU J’ACHEVE CE DAEMON DE GARDIEN A MIDI POM MES BLEUES (SHEPHERDESS, NO TEMPTATION. THAT POUSSIN, TENIERS, HOLD THE KEY; PEACE 681. BY THE CROSS AND THIS HORSE OF GOD, I COMPLETE or DESTROY THIS DAEMON OF THE GUARDIAN AT NOON. BLUE APPLES.)

But if some of the ciphers are daunting in their complexity, others are patently, even flagrantly obvious. In the second parchment, for instance, the raised letters, taken in sequence, spell out a coherent message. A DAGO BERT II ROI ET A SION EST CE TRES OR ET IL EST LA MORT. (TO DAGO BERT II, KING, AND TO SION BELONGS THIS TREASURE AND HE IS THERE DEAD.)
Although this particular message must have been discernible to Sauniere, it is doubtful that he could have deciphered the more intricate codes. Nevertheless, he realised he had stumbled upon something of consequence and, with the consent of the village mayor, brought his discovery to his superior, the bishop of Carcassonne. How much the bishop understood is unclear, but Sauniere was immediately dispatched to Paris at the bishop’s expense with instructions to present himself and the parchments to certain important ecclesiastic authorities. Chief among these were the Abbe Bieil, Director General of the Seminary of Saint Sulpice, and Bieil’s nephew, Emile Hoffet. At the time Hoffet was training for the priesthood. Although still in his early twenties, he had already established an impressive reputation for scholarship, especially in linguistics, cryptography and palaeography. Despite his pastoral vocation, he was known to be immersed in esoteric thought, and maintained cordial relations with the various occult-oriented groups, sects and secret societies which were proliferating in the French capital. This had brought him into contact with an illustrious cultural circle, which included such literary figures as Stephane Mallarme and Maurice Maeterlinck, as well as the composer Claude Debussy. He also knew Emma Calve, who, at the time of Sauniere’s appearance, had just returned from triumphant performances in London and Windsor.

As a diva, Emma Calve was the Maria Callas of her age. At the same time she was a high priestess of Parisian esoteric sub-culture, and sustained amorous liaisons with a number of influential occultists. Having presented himself to Bieil and Hoffet, Sauniere spent three weeks in Paris. What transpired during his meetings with the ecclesiastics is unknown. What is known is that the provincial country priest was promptly and warmly welcomed into Hoffet’s distinguished circle. It has even been asserted that he became Emma Calves lover. Contemporary gossips spoke of an affair between them, and one acquaintance of the singer described her as being “obsessed’ with the cure. In any case there is no question but that they enjoyed a close enduring friendship.

In the years that followed she visited him frequently in the vicinity of Rennes-leChateau, where, until recently, one could still find romantic hearts carved into the rocks of the mountainside, bearing their initials. During his stay in Paris, Sauniere also spent some time in the Louvre. This may well be connected with the fact that, before his departure, he purchased reproductions of three paintings. One seems to have been a portrait, by an unidentified artist, of Pope Celestin V, who reigned briefly at the end of the thirteenth century. One was a work by David Teniers although it is not clear which David Teniers, father or son. The third was perhaps the most famous tableau by Nicolas Poussin, “Les Bergers d’Arcadie’ – “The Shepherds of Arcadia’. On his return to Rennes-leChateau, Sauniere resumed his restoration of the village church. In the process he exhumed a curiously carved flagstone, dating from the seventh or eighth century, which may have had a crypt beneath it, a burial chamber in which skeletons were said to have been found.

Sauniere also embarked on projects of a rather more singular kind. In the churchyard, for example, stood the sepulchre of Marie, Marquise d’Hautpoul de Blanchefort. The headstone and flagstone marking her grave had been designed and installed by the Abbe Antoine Bigou – Sauniere’s predecessor of a century before, who had apparently composed two of the mysterious parchments. And the headstone’s inscription which included a number of deliberate errors in spacing and spelling was a perfect anagram for the message concealed in the parchments referring to Poussin and Teniers. If one rearranges the letters, they will form the cryptic statement quoted above alluding to Poussin and to Sion (see p.26); and the errors seem to have been contrived precisely to make them do so. Not knowing that the inscriptions on the marquise’s tomb had already been copied, Sauniere obliterated them. Nor was this desecration the only curious behaviour he exhibited. Accompanied by his faithful housekeeper, he began to make long journeys on foot about the countryside, collecting rocks of no apparent value or interest. He also embarked on a voluminous exchange of letters with unknown correspondents throughout France, as well as in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria and Spain. He took to collecting stacks of utterly worthless postage stamps. And he opened certain shadowy transactions with various banks. One of them even dispatched a representative from Paris, who travelled all the way to Rennes-leChateau for the sole purpose of ministering to Sauniere’s business. In postage alone Sauniere was already spending a substantial sum more than his previous annual income could possibly sustain. Then, in 1896, he began to spend in earnest, on a staggering and unprecedented scale. By the end of his life in 1917 his expenditure would amount to the equivalent of several million pounds at least. Some of this unexplained wealth was devoted to laudable public works a modern road was built leading up to the village, for example, and facilities for running water were provided. Other expenditures were more quixotic. A tower was built, the Tour Magdala, overlooking the called the Villa Bethania, which Sauniere himself never occupied. And the church was not only redecorated, but redecorated in a most bizarre fashion. A Latin inscription was incised in the porch lintel above the entrance: TERRIBILIS EST LOCUS ISTE (THIS PLACE IS TERRIBLE) Immediately inside the entrance a hideous statue was erected, a gaudy representation of the demon Asmodeus -custodian of secrets, guardian of hidden treasures and, according to ancient Judaic legend, builder of Solomon’s Temple.

On the church walls lurid, garishly painted plaques were installed depicting the Stations of the Cross each was characterised by some odd inconsistency, some inexplicable added detail, some flagrant or subtle deviation from accepted Scriptural account. In Station VIII for example, there is a child swathed in a Scottish plaid. In Station XIV, which portrays Jesus’s body being carried into the tomb, there is a background of dark nocturnal sky, dominated by a full moon. It is almost as if Sauniere were trying to intimate something. But what? That Jesus’s burial occurred after nightfall, several hours later than the Bible tells us it did? Or that the body is being carried out of the tomb, not into it? While engaged in this curious adornment, Sauniere continued to spend extravagantly. He collected rare china, precious fabrics, antique marbles. He created an orangery and a zoological garden. He assembled a magnificent library. Shortly before his death, he was allegedly planning to build a massive Babel-like tower lined with books, from which he intended to preach. Nor were his parishioners neglected. Sauniere regaled them with sumptuous banquets and other forms of largesse, maintaining the life-style of a medieval potentate presiding over an impregnable mountain domain. In his remote and well-nigh inaccessible eyrie he received a number of notable guests. One, of course, was Emma Calve. One was the French Secretary of State for Culture. But perhaps the most august and consequential visitor to the unknown country priest was the Archduke Johann von Habsburg, a cousin of Franz-Josef, Emperor of Austria.

Bank statements subsequently revealed that Sauniere and the archduke had opened consecutive accounts on the same day, and that the latter had made a substantial sum over to the former. The ecclesiastical authorities at first turned a blind eye. When Sauniere’s former superior at Carcassonne died, however, the new bishop attempted to call the priest to account. Sauniere responded with startling and brazen defiance. He refused to explain his wealth. He refused to accept the transfer the bishop ordered. Lacking any more substantial charge, the bishop accused him of simony -illicitly selling masses and a local tribunal suspended him. Sauniere appealed to the Vatican, which exonerated and reinstated him. On January 17th, 1917, Sauniere, then in his sixty-fifth year, suffered a sudden stroke. The date of January 17th is perhaps suspicious. The same date appears on the tombstone of the Marquise d’Hautpoul de Blanchefort -the tombstone Sauniere had eradicated. And January 17th is also the feast day of Saint Sulpice, who, as we were to discover, figured throughout our story. It was at the Seminary of Saint Sulpice that he confided his parchments to the Abbe Bieil and tmile Hoffet. But what makes Sauniere’s stroke on January 17th most suspicious is the fact that five days before, on January 12th, his parishioners declared that he had seemed to be in enviable health for a man of his age. Yet on January 12th, according to a receipt in our possession, Marie Denarnaud had ordered a coffin for her master. As Sauniere lay on his deathbed, a priest was called from a neighbouring parish to hear his final confession and administer the last rites. The priest duly arrived and retired into the sick-room. According to eye-witness testimony, he emerged shortly thereafter, visibly shaken. In the words of one account he “never smiled again’. In the words of another he lapsed into an acute depression that lasted for several months. Whether these accounts are exaggerated or not, the priest, presumably on the basis of Sauniere’s confession, refused to administer extreme unction. On January 22nd Sauniere died un shriven The following morning his body was placed upright in an armchair on the terrace of the Tour Magdala, clad in an ornate robe adorned with scarlet tassels.

One by one, certain unidentified mourners filed past, many of them Map 2 Rennes-leChiteau and its Environs 0 KILOMETRES5 LIMOUX O ALET-LES-RAINS ARQUFS “POVl71D1 tomb’ FSPtRAZA COUIZAR.U CO~BLA CHEPORT P~ RENNES-LE-CHATEAURENNES-LES-BAINS LAVALDIEU kB ~~ I/ ‘o P4 oLE Bezu ~I~ QUILL AN plucking tassels of remembrance from the dead man’s garment. There has never been any explanation of this ceremony. Present-day residents of Rennes-leChateau are as mystified by it as everyone else. The reading of Sauniere’s will was awaited with great anticipation. To everyone’s surprise and chagrin, however, it declared him to be utterly penniless. At some point before his death he had apparently transferred the whole of his wealth to Marie Denarnaud, who had shared his life and secrets for thirty-two years. Or perhaps most of that wealth had been in Marie’s name from the very beginning. Following the death of her master, Marie continued to live a comfortable life in the Villa Bethania until 1946. After the Second World War, however, the newly installed French government issued a new currency. As a means of apprehending tax-evaders, collaborators and wartime profiteers, French citizens, when exchanging old francs for new, were obliged to account for their revenues. Confronted by the prospect of an explanation, Marie chose poverty. She was seen in the garden of the villa, burning vast sheaves of old franc notes. For the next seven years Marie lived austerely, supporting herself on money obtained from the sale of Villa Bethania. She promised the purchaser, Monsieur Noel Corbu, that she would confide to him, before her death, a “secret’ which would make him not only rich but also “powerful’. On January 29th, 1953, however, Marie, like her master before her, suffered a sudden and unexpected stroke which left her prostrate on her deathbed, incapable of speech. To Monsieur Corbu’s intense frustration, she died shortly thereafter, carrying her secret with her. The Possible Treasures This, in its general outlines, was the story published in France during the 1960s. This was the form in which we first became acquainted with it. And it was to the questions raised by the story in this form that we, like other researchers of the subject, addressed ourselves.

The first question is fairly obvious. What was the source of Sauniere’s money? Whence could such sudden and enormous wealth have come? Was the explanation ultimately banal? Or was there something more exciting involved? The latter possibility imparted a tantalising quality to the mystery, and we could not resist the impulse to play detectives. We began by considering the explanations suggested by other researchers. According to many of these, Sauniere had indeed found a treasure of some kind. This was a plausible enough assumption, for the history of the village and its environs includes many possible sources of hidden gold or jewels. In prehistoric times, for example, the area around Rennes-leChateau was regarded as a sacred site by the Celtic tribes who lived there; and the village itself, once called Rhedae, derived its name from one of these tribes. In Roman times the area was a large and thriving community, important for its mines and therapeutic hot springs. And the Romans, too, regarded the site as sacred. Later researchers have found traces of several pagan temples. During the sixth century, the little mountain-top village was supposedly a town with 30,000 inhabitants. At one point it seems to have been the northern capital of the empire ruled by the Visigoths the Teutonic people who had swept westwards from Central Europe, sacked Rome, toppled the Roman Empire and established their own domain straddling the Pyrenees. For another five hundred years the town remained the seat of an important county, or comte, the Comte of Razes. Then, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, an army of northern knights descended on the Languedoc to stamp out the Cathar or Albigensian heresy and claim the rich spoils of the region for themselves. During the atrocities of the so-called Albigensian Crusade, Rennes-leChateau was captured and transferred from hand to hand as a fief. A century and a quarter later, in the 1360s, the local population was decimated by plague; and Rennes-leChateau was destroyed shortly thereafter by roving Catalan bandits.”

Tales of fantastic treasure are interwoven with many of these historical vicissitudes. The Cathar heretics, for example, were reputed to possess something of fabulous and even sacred value which, according to a number of legends, was the Holy Grail. These legends reportedly impelled Richard Wagner to make a pilgrimage to RennesleChateau before composing his last opera, Parsifal; and during the occupation of 1940-45 German troops, following in Wagner’s wake, are said to have undertaken a number of fruitless excavations in the vicinity. There was also the vanished treasure of the Knights Templar, whose Grand Master, Bertrand de Blanchefort, commissioned certain mysterious excavations in the vicinity. According to all accounts, these excavations were of a markedly clandestine nature, performed by a specially imported contingent of German miners. If some kind of Templar treasure were indeed concealed around Rennes-leChateau, this might explain the reference to “Sion’ in the parchments discovered by Sauniere. There were other possible treasures as well. Between the fifth and dynasty, which included King Dagobert II. Rennes-leChateau, in Dagobert’s time, was a Visigoth bastion, and Dagobert himself was married to a Visigoth princess. The town might have constituted a sort of royal treasury; and there are documents which speak of great wealth amassed by Dagobert for military conquest and concealed in the environs of Rennes-leChateau. If Sauniere discovered some such depository, it would explain the reference in the codes to Dagobert.
The Cathars. The Templars. Dagobert II. And there was yet another possible treasure the vast booty accumulated by the Visigoths during their tempestuous advance through Europe. This might have included something more than conventional booty, possibly items of immense relevance both symbolic and literal to Western religious tradition. It might, in short, have included the legendary treasure of the Temple of Jerusalem which, even more than the Knights Templar, would warrant the references to “Sion’. In A.D. 66 Palestine rose in revolt against the Roman yoke. Four years later, in A.D. 70, Jerusalem was razed by the legions of the emperor, under the command of his son, Titus. The Temple itself was sacked and the contents of the Holy of Holies carried back to Rome.

As they are depicted on Titus’s triumphal arch, these included the immense gold seven-branched candelabrum so sacred to Judaism, and possibly even the Ark of the Covenant. Three and a half centuries later, in A.D. 410, Rome in her turn was sacked by the invading Visigoths under Alaric the Great, who pillaged virtually the entire wealth of the Eternal City. As the historian Procopius tells us, Alaric made off with “the treasures of Solomon, the King of the Hebrews, a sight most worthy to be seen, for they were adorned in the most part with emeralds and in the olden time they had been taken from Jerusalem by the Romans.”5 Treasure, then, may well have been the source of Sauniere’s unexplained wealth. The priest may have discovered any of several treasures, or he may have discovered a single treasure which repeatedly changed hands through the centuries passing perhaps from the Temple of Jerusalem, to the Romans, to the Visigoths, eventually to the Cathars and/or the Knights Templar. If this were so, it would explain why the treasure in question “belonged’ both to Dagobert II and to Sion. Thus far our story seemed to be essentially a treasure story. And a treasure story even one involving the treasure of the Temple of Jerusalem is ultimately of limited relevance and significance. People are constantly discovering treasures of one kind or another. Such discoveries are often exciting, dramatic and mysterious, and many of them cast important illumination on the past. Few of them, however, exercise any direct influence, political or otherwise, on the present unless, of course, the treasure in question includes a secret of some sort, and possibly an explosive one. We did not discount the argument that Sauniere discovered treasure. At the same time it seemed clear to us that, whatever else he discovered, he also discovered a secret an historical secret of immense import to his own time and perhaps to our own as well. Mere money, gold or jewels would not, in themselves, explain a number of facets to his story. They would not account for his introduction to Hoffet’s circle, for instance, his association with Debussy and his liaison with Emma Calve. They would not explain the Church’s intense interest in the matter, the impunity with which Sauniere defied his bishop or his subsequent exoneration by the Vatican, which seemed to have displayed an urgent concern of its own. They would not explain a priest’s refusal to administer the last rites to a dying man, or the visit of a Habsburg archduke to a remote little village in the Pyrenees. The Habsburg archduke in question has since been revealed as Johann Salvator von Habsburg, known by the pseudonym of Jean Orth. He renounced all his rights and titles in 1889 and within two months had been banished from all the territories of the Empire. It was shortly after this that he first appeared in Rennes le Chateau. Said officially to have died in 1890 but in fact died in Argentina in 1910 or 1911. See Les Maisons Souveraines de L’Autriche by Dr. Dugast ROulIIe, Paris, 1967, page 191. Nor would money, gold or jewels explain the powerful aura of mystification surrounding the whole affair, from the elaborate coded ciphers to Marie Denarnaud burning her inheritance of banknotes. And Marie herself had promised to divulge a ‘secret’ which conferred not merely wealth but ‘power’ as well. On these grounds we grew increasingly convinced that Sauniere’s story involved more than riches, and that it involved a secret of some kind, one that was almost certainly controversial. In other words it seemed to us that the mystery was not confined to a remote backwater village and nineteenth-century priest. Whatever it was, it appeared to radiate out from Rennes-leChateau and produce ripples perhaps even a potential tidal wave in the world beyond.

Could Sauniere’s wealth have come not from anything of intrinsic financial value, but from knowledge of some kind? If so, could this knowledge have been turned to fiscal account? Could it have been used to blackmail somebody, for example? Could Sauniere’s wealth have been his payment for silence? We knew that he had received money from Johann von Habsburg. At the same time, however, the priest’s ‘secret’, whatever it was, seemed to be more religious in nature than political. Moreover, his relations with the Austrian archduke, according to all accounts, were notably cordial. On later career, seems to have been distinctly afraid of him, and to have treated him with kid gloves the Vatican.

Could Sauniere have been blackmailing the Vatican? Granted such blackmail would be a presumptuous and dangerous undertaking for one man, however exhaustive his precautions. But what if he were aided and supported in his enterprise by others, whose eminence rendered them inviolable to the church, like the French Secretary of State for Culture, or the Habsburgs? What if the Archduke Johann were only an intermediary, and the money he bestowed on Sauniere actually issued from the coffers of Rome?s The Intrigue In February 1972 The Lost Treasure of Jerusalem?” the first of our three films on Sauniere and the mystery of Rennes-leChateau, was shown. The film made no controversial assertions, it simply told the ‘basic story’ as it has been recounted in the preceding pages, Nor was there any speculation about an ‘explosive secret’ or highlevel blackmail. It is also worth mentioning that the film did not cite smile Hoffet the young clerical scholar in Paris to whom Sauniere confided his parchments by name. Not surprisingly perhaps, we received a veritable deluge of mail. Some of it offered intriguing speculative suggestions. Some of it was complimentary. Some of it was dotty. Of all these letters, one, which the writer did not wish us to publicise, seemed to warrant special attention. It came from a retired Anglican priest and seemed a curious and provocative non sequitur. Our correspondent wrote with categorical certainty and authority. He made his assertions baldly and definitively, with no elaboration, and with apparent indifference as to whether we believed him or not. The ‘treasure’, he declared flatly, did not involve gold or precious stones. On the contrary, it consisted of ‘incontrovertible proof’ that the Crucifixion was a fraud and that Jesus was alive as late as A.D. 45. This claim sounded flagrantly absurd. What, even to a convinced atheist, could possibly comprise ‘incontrovertible proof’ that Jesus survived the Crucifixion? We were unable to imagine anything which could not be disbelieved or repudiated which would not only comprise ‘proof’, but ‘proof’ that was truly ‘incontrovertible’.

At the same time the sheer extravagance of the assertion begged for clarification and elaboration. The writer of the letter had provided a return address. At the earliest opportunity we drove to see him and attempted to interview him. In person he was rather more reticent than he had been in his letter, and seemed to regret having written to us in the first place. He refused to expand upon his reference to “incontrovertible proof’ and volunteered only one additional fragment of information. This “proof’, he said, or its existence at any rate, had been divulged to him by another Anglican cleric, Canon Alfred Leslie Liney. Liney, who died in 1940, had published widely and was not unknown. During much of his life he had maintained contacts with the Catholic Modernist Movement, based primarily at Saint Sulpice in Paris. In his youth Liney had worked in Paris, and had been acquainted with Emile Hoffet. The trail had come full circle. Given a connection between Liney and Hoffet, the claims of the priest, however preposterous, could not be summarily dismissed. Similar evidence of a monumental secret was forthcoming when we began to research the life of Nicolas Poussin, the great seventeenth-century painter whose name recurred throughout Sauniere’s story. In 1656 Poussin, who was living in Rome at the time, had received a visit from the Abbe Louis Fouquet, brother of Nicolas Fouquet, Superintendent of Finances to Louis XIV of France. From Rome, the abbe dispatched a letter to his brother, describing his meeting with Poussin. Part of this letter is worth quoting. He and I discussed certain things, which I shall with ease be able to explain to you in detail things which will give you, through Monsieur Poussin, advantages which even kings would have great pains to draw from him, and which, according to him, it is possible that nobody else will ever rediscover in the centuries to come. And what is more, these are things so difficult to discover that nothing now on this earth can prove of better fortune nor be their equal.?

Neither historians nor biographers of Poussin or Fouquet have ever been able satisfactorily to explain this letter, which clearly alludes to some mysterious matter of immense import. Not long after receiving it, Nicolas Fouquet was arrested and imprisoned for the duration of his life. According to certain accounts, he was held strictly incommunicado and some historians regard him as a likely candidate for the Man in the Iron Mask. In the meantime the whole of his correspondence was confiscated by Louis XIV, who inspected all of it personally. In the years that followed the king went determinedly out of his way to obtain the original of Poussin’s painting, “Les Bergers d’Arcadie’. When he at last succeeded it was sequestered in his private apartments at Versailles. Whatever its artistic greatness, the painting would seem to be innocent enough. In the foreground three shepherds and a shepherdess are gathered about a large antique tomb, contemplating the inscription in the weathered stone: “ET IN ARCADIA EGO’. In the background looms a rugged, mountainous landscape of the sort generally associated with Poussin. According to Anthony Blunt, as well as other Poussin experts, this landscape was wholly mythical, a product of the painter’s imagination. In the early 1970s, however, an actual tomb was located, identical to the one in the painting identical in setting, dimensions, proportions, shape, surrounding vegetation, even in the circular outcrop of rock on which one of Poussin’s shepherds rests his foot. This actual tomb stands on the outskirts of a village called Arques -approximately six miles from Rennes-leChateau, and three miles from the chateau of Blanchefort. If one stands before the sepulchre the vista is virtually indistinguishable from that in the painting. And then it becomes apparent that one of the peaks in the background of the painting is Rennes-leChateau. There is no indication of the age of the tomb. It may, of course, have been erected quite recently but how did its builders ever locate a setting which matches so precisely that of the painting? In fact it would seem to have been standing in Poussin’s time, and “Les Bergers d’Arcadie’ would seem to be a faithful rendering of the actual site.

According to the peasants in the vicinity, the tomb has been there for as long as they, their parents and grandparents can remember. And there is said to be specific mention of it in a memoire dating from 1709.8 According to records in the village of Arques, the land on which the tomb starts belonged, until his death in the 1950s, to an American, one Louis Lawrence of Boston, Massachusetts. In the 1920s Mr. Lawrence opened the sepulchre and found it empty. His wife and mother-in-law were later buried in it. When preparing the first of our BBC films on Rennes-leChateau, we spent a morning shooting footage of the tomb. We broke off for lunch and returned some three hours later. During our absence, a crude and violent attempt had been made to smash into the sepulchre. If there was once an inscription on the actual tomb, it had long since been weathered away. As for the inscription on the tomb in Poussin’s painting, it would seem to be conventionally elegiac Death announcing his sombre presence even in Arcadia, the idyllic pastoral paradise of classical myth. And yet the inscription is curious because it lacks a verb. Literally translated, it reads: AND IN ARCADIA I .. . Why should the verb be missing? Perhaps for a philosophical reason to preclude all tense, all indication of past, present or future, and thereby to imply something eternal? Or perhaps for a reason of a more practical nature. The codes in the parchments found by Sauniere had relied heavily on anagrams, on the transposition and rearrangement of letters. Could “ET IN ARCADIA EGO’ also perhaps be an anagram? Could the verb have been omitted so that the inscription would consist only of certain precise letters? One of our television viewers, in writing to us, suggested that this might indeed be so and then rearranged the letters into a coherent Latin statement.

The result was: I “FEGO ARCANA DEI (BEGONE! I CONCEAL THE SECRETS OF GOD) We were pleased and intrigued by this ingenious exercise. We did not realise at the time how extraordinarily appropriate the resulting admonition was. 2 The Cathars and the Great Heresy We began our investigation at a point with which we already had a certain familiarity the Cathar or Albigensian heresy and the crusade it provoked in the thirteenth century. We were already aware that the Cathars figured somehow in the mystery surrounding Sauniere and Rennes-leChateau. In the first place the medieval heretics had been numerous in the village and its environs, which suffered brutally during the course of the Albigensian Crusade. Indeed, the whole history of the region is soaked in Cathar blood, and the residues of that blood, along with much bitterness, persist to the present day. Many peasants in the area now, with no inquisitors 1o fall upon them, openly proclaim Cathar sympathies. There is even a Cathar church and a so-called “Cathar pope’ who, until his death in 1978, lived in the village of Arques. We knew that Sauniere had immersed himself in the history and folklore of his native soil, so he could not possibly have avoided contact with Cathar thought and traditions. He could not have been unaware that RennesleChateau was an important town in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and something of a Cathar bastion. Sauniere must also have been familiar with the numerous legends attached to the Cathars. He must have known of the rumours connecting them with that fabulous object, the Holy Grail. And if Richard Wagner, in quest of something pertaining to the Grail, did indeed visit Rennes-leChateau, Sauniere could not have been ignorant of that fact either. In 1890, moreover, a man named Jules Doinel became librarian at Carcassonne and established a neo-Cathar church.” Doinel himself wrote prolifically on Cathar thought, and by 1896 had become a prominent member of a local cultural organisation, the Society of Arts and Sciences of Carcassonne.

In 1898 he was elected its 41 secretary. This society included a number of Sauniere’s associates, among them his best friend, the Abbe Henri Boudet. And Doinel’s own personal circle included Emma Calve. It is therefore very probable that Doinel and Sauniere were acquainted. There is a further, and more provocative, reason for linking the Cathars with the mystery of Rennes-leChateau. In one of the parchments found by Sauniere, the text is sprinkled with a handful of small letters eight, to be precise quite deliberately different from all the others. Three of the letters are towards the top of the page, five towards the bottom. These eight letters have only to be read in sequence for them to spell out two words “REX 1vtuNDt’. This is unmistakably a Cathar term, which is immediately recognisable to anyone familiar with Cathar thought. Given these factors, it seemed reasonable enough to commence our investigation with the Cathars. We therefore began to research into them, their beliefs and traditions, their history and milieu in detail. Our inquiry opened new dimensions of mystery, and generated a number of tantalising questions. The Albigensian Crusade In 1209 an army of some 30,000 knights and foot-soldiers from Northern Europe descended like a whirlwind on the Languedoc the mountainous north-eastern foothills of the Pyrenees in what is now southern France. In the ensuing war the whole territory was ravaged, crops were destroyed, towns and cities were razed, a whole population was put to the sword. This extermination occurred on so vast, so terrible a scale that it may well constitute the first case of “genocide’ in modern European history. In the town of Beziers alone, for example, at least 15,000 men, women and children were slaughtered wholesale many of them in the sanctuary of the church itself. When an officer inquired of the pope’s representative how he might distinguish heretics from true believers, the reply was, “Kill them all. God will recognise His own.” This quotation, though widely reported, may be apocryphal Nevertheless, it typifies the fanatical zeal and bloodlust with which the atrocities were perpetrated. The Map 3 The Languedoc of the Cathars BORDEAUX R C- fm CA HORS AGE ~f /” MOISSAC MONTAUBANAVIGNON ALBI -NIMES TOUL USE CA EMONTPELLIER ~MU0.ET MI NERVE BE:2I CARCASSONNE “MARSEILLES PAMI~”RS.X . MOT _A0.BONNE~ MIR~”PO X LET IX TERM LA VELA NET rMCNTStGURi-QU IBP us _ ^^~”RPIGNAN same papal representative, writing to Innocent III in Rome, announced proudly that “neither age nor sex nor status was spared’. After Beziers, the invading army swept through the whole of the Languedoc. Perpignan fell, Narbonne fell, Carcassonne fell, Toulouse fell. And, wherever the victors passed, they left a trail of blood, death and carnage in their wake. This war, which lasted for nearly forty years, is now known as the Albigensian Crusade. It was a crusade in the true sense of the word. It had been called by the pope himself. Its participants wore a cross on their tunics, like crusaders in Palestine. And the rewards were the same as they were for crusaders in the Holy Land remission of all sins, an expiation of penances, an assured place in Heaven and all the booty one could plunder. In this Crusade, moreover, one did not even have to cross the sea. And in accordance with feudal law, one was obliged to fight for no more than forty days assuming, of course, that one had no interest in plunder.

By the time the Crusade was over, the Languedoc had been utterly transformed, plunged back into the barbarity that characterised the rest of Europe. Why? For what had all this havoc, brutality and devastation occurred? At the beginning of the thirteenth century the area now known as the Languedoc was not officially a part of France. It was an independent principality, whose language, culture and political institutions had less in common with the north than they had with Spain with the kingdoms of Leon, Aragon and Castile. The principality was ruled by a handful of noble families, chief of whom were the counts of Toulouse and the powerful house of Trencavel. And within the confines of this principality, there flourished a culture which, at the time, was the most advanced and sophisticated in Christendom, with the possible exception of Byzantium. The Languedoc had much in common with Byzantium. Learning, for example, was highly esteemed, as it was not in Northern Europe. Philosophy and other intellectual activities flourished; poetry and courtly love were extolled; Greek, Arabic; and Hebrew were enthusiastically studied; and at Lunel and Narbonne, schools devoted to the Cabala the ancient esoteric tradition of Judaism -were thriving. Even the nobility was literate and literary, at a time when most Northern nobles could not even sign their names. Like Byzantium, too, the Languedoc practised a civilised, easy-going religious tolerance in contrast to the fanatical zeal that characterised other parts of Europe. Skeins of Islamic and Judaic thought, for instance, were imported through maritime commercial centres like Marseilles, or made their way across the Pyrenees from Spain. At the same time, the Roman Church enjoyed no very high esteem; Roman clerics in the Languedoc, by virtue of their notorious corruption, succeeded primarily in alienating the populace. There were churches, for example, in which no mass had been said for more than thirty years. Many priests ignored their parishioners and ran businesses or large estates. One archbishop of Narbonne never even visited his diocese. Whatever the corruption of the church, the Languedoc had reached an apex of culture that would not be seen in Europe again until the Renaissance.

But, as in Byzantium, there were elements of complacency, decadence and tragic weakness which rendered the region unprepared for the onslaught subsequently unleashed upon it. For some time both the Northern European nobility and the Roman Church had been aware of its vulnerability, and were eager to exploit it. The Northern nobility had for many years coveted the wealth and luxury of the Languedoc. And the Church was interested for its own reasons. In the first place its authority in the region was slack. And while culture flourished in the Languedoc, something else flourished as well the major heresy of medieval Christendom. In the words of Church authorities the Languedoc was “infected’ by the Albigensian heresy, ‘the foul leprosy of the South’. And although the adherents of this heresy were essentially non-violent, they constituted a severe threat to Roman authority, the most severe threat, indeed, that Rome would experience until three centuries later when teachings of Martin Luther began the Reformation. By 1200 there was a very real prospect of this heresy displacing Roman Catholicism as the dominant form of Christianity in the Languedoc. And what was more ominous still in the Church’s eyes, it was already radiating out to other parts of Europe, especially to urban centres in Germany, Flanders and Champagne. The heretics were known by a variety of names. In 1165 they had been condemned by an ecclesiastical council at the Languedoc town of Albi. For this reason, or perhaps because Albi continued to be one of their centres, they were often called Albigensians. On other occasions they were called Cathars or Cathares or Cathari. In Italy they were called Patarines. Not infrequently they were also branded or stigmatised with the names of much earlier heresies Arian, Marcionite and Manichaean. “Albigensian’ and “Cathar’ were essentially generic names. In other words they did not refer to a single coherent church, like that of Rome, with a fixed, codified and definitive body of doctrine and theology. The heretics in question comprised a multitude of diverse sects many under the direction of an independent leader, whose followers would assume his name. And while these sects may have held to certain common principles, they diverged radically from one another in detail.

Moreover, much of our information about the heretics derives from ecclesiastical sources like the Inquisition. To form a picture of them from such sources is like trying to form a picture of, say, the French Resistance from the reports of the SS and Gestapo. It is therefore virtually impossible to present a coherent and definitive summary of what actually constituted “Cathar thought’. In general the Cathars subscribed to a doctrine of reincarnation and to a recognition of the feminine principle in religion. Indeed, the preachers and teachers of Cathar congregations, known as parfaits (“perfected ones’), were of both sexes. At the same time, the Cathars rejected the orthodox Catholic Church and denied the validity of all clerical hierarchies, or official and ordained intercessors between man and God. At the core of this position lay an important Cathar tenet the repudiation of “faith’, at least as the Church insisted on it. In the place of ‘faith’ accepted at second hand, the Cathars insisted on direct and personal knowledge, a religious or mystical experience apprehended at first hand. This experience had been called “gnosis’, from the Greek word for ‘knowledge’, and for the Cathars it took precedence over all creeds and dogma. Given such an emphasis on direct personal contact with God, priests, bishops and other clerical authorities became superfluous. The Cathars were also dualists. All Christian thought, of course, can ultimately be seen as dualistic, insisting on a conflict between two opposing principles good and evil, spirit and flesh, higher and lower. But the Cathars carried this dichotomy much further than orthodox Catholicism was prepared to. For the Cathars, men were the swords that spirits fought with, and no one saw the hands. For them, a perpetual war was being waged throughout the whole of creation between two irreconcilable principles -light and darkness, spirit and matter, good and evil. Catholicism posits one supreme God, whose adversary, the Devil, is ultimately inferior to Him. The Cathars, however, proclaimed the existence not of one god, but of two, with more or less comparable status. One of these gods the ‘good’ one was entirely disincarnate, a being or principle of pure spirit, unsullied by the taint of matter. He was the god of love.

But love was deemed wholly incompatible with power; and material creation was a manifestation of power. Therefore, for the Cathars, material creation the world itself was intrinsically evil. All matter was intrinsically evil. The universe, in short, was the handiwork of a ‘usurper god’, the god of evil or, as the Cathars called him, “Rex Mundi’, “King of the World’. Catholicism rests on what might be called an “ethical dualism’. Evil, though issuing ultimately perhaps from the Devil, manifests itself primarily through man and his actions. In contrast, the Cathars maintained a form of “cosmological dualism’, a dualism that pervaded the whole of reality. For the Cathars, this was a basic premise, but their response to it varied from sect to sect. According to some Cathars, the purpose of man’s life on earth was to transcend matter, to renounce perpetually anything connected with the principle of power and thereby to attain union with the principle of love. According to other Cathars, man’s purpose was to reclaim and redeem matter, to spiritualise and transform it. It is important to note the absence of any fixed dogma, doctrine or theology. As in most deviations from established orthodoxy there are only certain loosely defined attitudes, and the moral obligations attendant on these attitudes were subject to individual interpretation. In the eyes of the Roman Church the Cathars were committing serious heresies in regarding material creation, on behalf of which Jesus had supposedly died, as intrinsically evil, and implying that God, whose ‘word’ had created the world “in the beginning’, was a usurper. Their most serious heresy, however, was their attitude towards Jesus himself. Since matter was intrinsically evil, the Cathars denied that Jesus could partake of matter, become incarnate in the flesh, and still be the Son of God. By some Cathars he was therefore deemed to be wholly incorporeal, a ‘phantasm’, an entity of pure spirit, which, of course, could not possibly be crucified. The majority of Cathars seem to have regarded him as a prophet no different from any other a mortal being who, on behalf of the principle of love, died on the cross.

There was, in short, nothing mystical, nothing supernatural, nothing divine about the Crucifixion if, indeed, it was relevant at all, which many Cathars appear to have doubted. In any case, all Cathars vehemently repudiated the significance of both the Crucifixion and the cross -perhaps because they felt these doctrines were irrelevant, or because Rome extolled them so fervently, or because the brutal circumstances of a prophet’s death did not seem worthy of worship. And the cross at least in association with Calvary and the Crucifixion was regarded as an emblem of Rex Mundi, lord of the material world, the very antithesis of the true redemptive principle. Jesus, if mortal at all, had been a prophet of Ahs oR the principle of love. And AMOR, when inverted or perverted or twisted into power, became ROMA Rome, whose opulent, luxurious Church seemed to the Cathars a palpable embodiment and manifestation on earth of Rex Mundi’s sovereignty. In consequence the Cathars not only refused to worship the cross, they also denied such sacraments as baptism and communion. Despite these subtle, complex, abstract and, to a modern mind perhaps, irrelevant theological positions, most Cathars were not unduly fanatical about their creed. It is intellectually fashionable nowadays to regard the Cathars as a congregation of sages, enlightened mystics or initiates in arcane wisdom, all of whom were privy to some great cosmic secret. In actual fact, however, most Cathars were more or less “ordinary’ men and women, who found in their creed a refuge from the stringency of orthodox Catholicism a respite from the endless tithes, penances, obsequies, strictures and other impositions of the Roman Church. However abstruse their theology, the Cathars were eminently realistic people in practice. They condemned procreation, for example, since the propagation of the flesh was a service not to the principle of love, but to Rex Mundi; but they were not so naive as to advocate the abolition of sexuality. True, there was a specific Cathar “sacrament’, or the equivalent thereof, called the Consolamentum, which compelled one to chastity. Except for the parfaits, however, who were usually ex-family men and women anyway, the Consolumentum was not administered until one was on one’s death-bed; and it is not inordinately difficult to be chaste when one is dying. So far as the congregation at large was concerned, sexuality was tolerated, if not explicitly sanctioned. How does one condemn procreation while condoning sexuality?

There is evidence to suggest that the Cathars practised both birth control and abortion.” When Rome subsequently charged the heretics with ‘unnatural sexual practices’, this was taken to refer to sodomy. However, the Cathars, in so far as records survive, were extremely strict in their prohibition of homosexuality. “Unnatural sexual practices’ may well have referred to various methods of birth control and abortion. We know Rome’s position on those issues today. It is not difficult to imagine the energy and vindictive zeal with which that position would have been enforced during the Middle Ages. Generally, the Cathars seem to have adhered to a life of extreme devotion and simplicity. Deploring churches, they usually conducted their rituals and services in the open air or in any readily available building a barn, a house, a municipal hall. They also practised what we, today, would call meditation. They were strict vegetarians, although the eating of fish was allowed. And when travelling about the countryside, parfaits would always do so in pairs, thus lending credence to the rumours of sodomy sponsored by their enemies. The Siege of Montsegur This, then, was the creed which swept the Languedoc and adjacent provinces on a scale that threatened to displace Catholicism itself. For a number of comprehensible reasons, many nobles found the creed attractive. Some warmed to its general tolerance. Some were anti-clerical anyway. Some were disillusioned with the Church’s corruption. Some had lost patience with the tithe system, whereby the income from their estates vanished into the distant coffers of Rome. Thus many nobles, in their old age, became parfaits. Indeed, it is estimated that 30 per cent of all parfaits were drawn from Languedoc nobility. In 1145, half a century before the Albigensian Crusade, Saint Bernard himself had journeyed to the Languedoc, intending to preach against the heretics. When he arrived, he was less appalled by the heretics than by the corruption of his own Church.

So far as the heretics were concerned, Bernard was clearly impressed-by them. “No sermons are more Christian than theirs,” he declared, “and their morals are pure. ‘3 By 1200, needless to say, Rome had grown distinctly alarmed by the situation. Nor was she unaware of the envy with which the barons of Northern Europe regarded the rich lands and cities to the south. This envy could readily be exploited, and the Northern lords would constitute the Church’s storm-troops. All that was needed was some provocation, some excuse to ignite popular opinion. Such an excuse was soon forthcoming. On January 14th, 1208, one of the Papal Legates to the Languedoc, Pierre de Castelnau, was murdered. The crime seems to have been committed by anticlerical rebels with no Cathar affiliations whatever. Furnished with the excuse she needed, however, Rome did not hesitate to blame the Cathars. At once Pope Innocent III ordered a Crusade. Although there had been intermittent persecution of heretics all through the previous century, the Church now mobilised her forces in earnest. The heresy was to be extirpated once and for all. A massive army was mustered under the command of the abbot of Citeaux. Military operations were entrusted largely to Simon de Montfort father of the man who was subsequently to play so crucial a role in English history. And under Simon’s leadership the pope’s crusaders set out to reduce the highest European culture of the Middle Ages to destitution and rubble. In this holy undertaking they were aided by a new and useful ally, a Spanish fanatic named Dominic Guzman. Spurred by a rabid hatred of heresy, Guzman, in 1216, created the monastic order subsequently named after him, the Dominicans. And in 1233 the Dominicans spawned a more infamous institution the Holy Inquisition. The Cathars were not to be its sole victims. Before the Albigensian Crusade, many Languedoc nobles especially the influential houses of Trencavel and Toulouse had been extremely friendly to the region’s large indigenous Jewish population. Now all such protection and support was withdrawn by order. In 1218 Simon de Montfort was killed besieging Toulouse. Nevertheless, the depredation of the Languedoc continued, with only brief respites, for another quarter of a century. By 1243, however, all organised resistance in so far as there had ever been any had effectively ceased.

By 1243 all major Cathar towns and bastions had fallen to the Northern invaders, except for a handful of remote and isolated strong points. Chief among these was the majestic mountain citadel of Montsegur, poised like a celestial ark above the surrounding valleys. For ten months Montsegur was besieged by the invaders, withstanding repeated assaults and maintaining tenacious resistance. At length, in March 1244, the fortress capitulated, and Catharism, at least ostensibly, ceased to exist in the south of France. But ideas can never be stamped out definitively. In his best-selling book, Montaillou, for example, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, drawing extensively on documents of the period, chronicles the activities of surviving Cathars nearly half a century after the fall of Montsegur. Small enclaves of heretics continued to survive in the mountains, living in caves, adhering to their creed and waging a bitter guerrilla war against their persecutors. In many areas of the Languedoc including the environs of Rennes-leChateau the Cathar faith is generally acknowledged to have persisted. And many writers have traced subsequent European heresies to offshoots of Cathar thought the Waldensians, for instance, the Hussites, the Adamites or. Brethren of the Free Spirit, the Anabaptists and the strange Camisards, numbers of whom found refuge in London during the early eighteenth century. The Cathar Treasure During the Albigensian Crusade and afterwards, a mystique grew up around the Cathars which still persists today. In part this can be put down to the element of romance that surrounds any lost and tragic cause that of Bonnie Prince Charlie, for example with a magical lustre, with a haunting nostalgia, with the “stuff of legend’. But at the same time, we discovered, there were some very real mysteries associated with the Cathars. While the legends might be exalted and romanticised, a number of enigmas remained. One of these pertains to the origins of the Cathars; and although this at first seemed an academic point to us, it proved subsequently to be of considerable importance.

Most recent historians have argued that the Cathars derived from the Bogomils, a sect active in Bulgaria during the tenth and eleventh centuries, whose missionaries migrated westwards. There is no question that the heretics of the Languedoc included a number of Bogomils. Indeed a known Bogomil preacher was prominent in the political and religious affairs of the time. And yet our research disclosed substantial evidence that the Cathars did not derive from the Bogomils. On the contrary, they seemed to represent the flowering of something already rooted in French soil for centuries. They seemed to have issued, almost directly, from heresies established and entrenched in France at the very advent of the Christian era. 4 There are other, considerably more intriguing, mysteries associated with the Cathars. Jean de Joinville, for example, an old man writing of his acquaintance with Louis IX during the thirteenth century, writes, “The king (Louis IX) once told me how several men from among the Albigenses had gone to the Comte de Montfort .. . and asked him to come and look at the body of Our Lord, which had become flesh and blood in the hands of their priest. ‘5 Montfort, according to the anecdote, declared that his entourage may go if they wish, but he will continue to believe in accordance with the tenets of “Holy Church’. There is no further elaboration or explanation of this incident. Joinville himself merely recounts it in passing. But what are we to make of that enigmatic invitation? What were the Cathars doing? What kind of ritual was involved? Leaving aside the Mass, which the Cathars repudiated anyway, what could possibly make “the body of Our Lord .. . become flesh and blood’? Whatever it might be, there is certainly something disturbingly literal in the statement. Another mystery surrounds the legendary Cathar “treasure’. It is known that the Cathars were extremely wealthy. Technically, their creed forbade them to bear arms; and though many ignored this prohibition, the fact remains that large numbers of mercenaries were employed at considerable expense.

At the same time, the sources of Cathar wealth the allegiance they commanded from powerful landowners, for instance were obvious and explicable. Yet rumours arose, even during the course of the Albigensian Crusade, of a fantastic mystical Cathar treasure, far beyond material wealth. Whatever it was, this treasure was reputedly kept at Montsegur. When Montsegur fell, however, nothing of consequence was found. And yet there are certain extremely singular incidents connected with the siege and the capitulation of the fortress. During the siege, the attackers numbered upwards of ten thousand. With this vast force the besiegers attempted to surround the entire mountain, precluding all entry and exit and hoping to starve out the defenders. Despite their numerical strength, however, they lacked sufficient manpower to make their ring completely secure. Many troops were local, moreover, and sympathetic to the Cathars. And many troops were simply unreliable. In consequence, it was not difficult to pass undetected through the attackers’ lines. There were many gaps through which men slipped to and fro, and supplies found their way up to the fortress. The Cathars took advantage of these gaps. In January, nearly three months before the fall of the fortress, two parfaits escaped. According to reliable accounts, they carried with them the bulk of the Cathars’ material wealth a load of gold, silver and coin which they carried first to a fortified cave in the mountains and from there to a castle stronghold. After that the treasure vanished and has never been heard of again. On March 1st Montsegur finally capitulated. By then its defenders numbered less than four hundred between 150 and 180 of them were parfaits, the rest being knights, squires, menat-arms and their families. They were granted surprisingly lenient terms. The fighting men were to receive full pardon for all previous ‘crimes’. They would be allowed to depart with their arms, baggage and any gifts, including money, they might receive from their employers. The parfaits were also accorded unexpected generosity. Provided they abjured their heretical beliefs and confessed their “sins’ to the Inquisition, they would be freed and subjected only to light penances.

The defenders requested a two-week truce, with a complete halt to hostilities, to consider the terms. In a further display of uncharacteristic generosity, the attackers agreed. In return the defenders voluntarily offered hostages. It was agreed that if anyone attempted to escape from the fortress the hostages would be executed. Were the parfaits so committed to their beliefs that they willingly chose martyrdom instead of conversion? Or was there something they could not or dared not -confess to the Inquisition? Whatever the answer, not one of the porfaits, as far as is known, accepted the besiegers’ terms. On the contrary, all of them chose martyrdom. Moreover, at least twenty of the other occupants of the fortress, six women and some fifteen fighting men, voluntarily received the Consolamentum and became parfaits as well, thus committing themselves to certain death. On March 15th the truce expired. At dawn the following day more than two hundred parfaits were dragged roughly down the mountainside. Not one recanted. There was no time to erect individual stakes, so they were locked into a large wood-filled stockade at the foot of the mountain and burned en masse. Confined to the castle, the remainder of the garrison was compelled to look on. They were warned that if any of them sought to escape it would mean death for all of them, as well as for the hostages. Despite this risk, however, the garrison had connived in hiding four parfaits among them. And on the night of March 16th these four men, accompanied by a guide, made a daring escape again with the knowledge and collusion of the garrison. They descended the sheer western face of the mountain, suspended by ropes and letting themselves down drops of more than a hundred metres at a What were these men doing? What was the purpose of their hazardous escape, which entailed such risk to both the garrison and the hostages? On the next day they could have walked freely out of the fortress, at liberty to resume their lives. Yet for some unknown reason, they embarked on a perilous nocturnal escape which might easily have entailed death for themselves and their colleagues. According to tradition, these four men carried with them the legendary Cathar treasure.

But the Cathar treasure had been smuggled out of Montsegur three months before. And how much “treasure’, in any case how much gold, silver or coin could three or four men carry on their backs, dangling from ropes on a sheer mountainside? If the four escapees were indeed carrying something, it would seem clear that they were carrying something other than material wealth. What might they have been carrying? Accoutrements of the Cathar faith perhaps books, manuscripts, secret teachings, relics, religious objects of some kind; perhaps something which, for one reason or another, could not be permitted to fall into hostile hands. That might explain why an escape was undertaken an escape that entailed such risk for everyone involved. But if something of so precious a nature had, at all costs, to be kept out of hostile hands, why was it not smuggled out before? Why was it not smuggled out with the bulk of the material treasure three months previously? Why was it retained in the fortress until this last and most dangerous moment? The precise date of the truce permitted us to deduce a possible answer to these questions. It had been requested by the defenders, who voluntarily offered hostages to obtain it. For some reason, the defenders seem to have deemed it necessary even though all it did was delay the inevitable for a mere two weeks. Perhaps, we concluded, such a delay was necessary to purchase time. Not time in general, but that specific time, that specific date. It coincided with the spring equinox -and the equinox may well have enjoyed some ritual status for the Cathars. It also coincided with Easter. But the Cathars, who questioned the relevance of the Crucifixion, ascribed no particular importance to Easter. And yet it is known that a festival of some sort was held on March 14th, the day before the truce expired.” There seems little doubt that the truce was requested in order that this festival might be held. And there seems little doubt that the festival could not be held on a date selected at random. It apparently had to be on March 14th. Whatever the festival was, it clearly made some impression on the hired mercenaries some of whom, defying inevitable death, converted to the Cathar creed. Could this fact hold at least a partial key to what was smuggled out of Montsegur two nights later? Could whatever was smuggled out then have been necessary, in some way, for the festival on the 14th? Could it somehow have been instrumental in persuading at least twenty of the defenders to become parfaits at the last moment? And could it in some fashion have ensured the subsequent collusion of the garrison, even at the risk of their lives? If the answer is yes to all these questions, that would explain why whatever was removed on the 16th was not removed earlier in January, for example, when the monetary treasure was carried to safety. It would have been needed for the festival. And it would then have had to be kept out of hostile hands.

The Mystery of the Cathars As we pondered these conclusions, we were constantly reminded of the legends linking the Cathars and the Holy Grail.8 We were not prepared to regard the Grail as anything more than myth. We were certainly not prepared to assert that it ever existed in actuality. Even if it did, we could not imagine that a cup or bowl, whether it held Jesus’ blood or not, would be so very precious to the Cathars for whom Jesus, to a significant degree, was incidental. Nevertheless, the legends continued to haunt and perplex us. Elusive though it is, there does seem to be some link between the Cathars and the whole cult of the Grail as it evolved during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. A number of writers have argued that the Grail romances -those of Chretien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach, for example are an interpolation of Cathar thought, hidden in elaborate symbolism, into the heart of orthodox Christianity. There may be some exaggeration in that assertion, but there is also some truth. During the Albigensian Crusade ecclesiastics fulminated against the Grail romances, declaring them to be pernicious, if not heretical. And in some of these romances there are isolated passages which are not only highly unorthodox, but quite unmistakably dualist in other words, Cathar. What is more, Wolfram von Eschenbach, in one of his Grail romances, declares that the Grail castle was situated in the Pyrenees an assertion which Richard Wagner, at any rate, would seem to have taken literally.

According to Wolfram, the name of the Grail castle was Munsalvaesche – a Germanicised version apparently of Montsalvat, a Cathar term. And in one of Wolfram’s poems the lord of the Grail castle is named Perilla. Interestingly enough, the lord of Montsegur was Raimon de Pereille whose name, in its Latin form, appears on documents of the period as Perilla.9 If such striking coincidences persisted in haunting us, they must also, we concluded, have haunted Sauniere -who was, after all, steeped in the legends and folklore of the region. And like any other native of the region, Sauniere must have been constantly aware of the proximity of Montsegur, whose poignant and tragic fate still dominates local consciousness. But for Sauniere the very nearness of the fortress may well have entailed certain practical implications. Something had been smuggled out of Montsegur just after the truce expired. According to tradition, the four men who escaped from the doomed citadel carried with them the Cathar treasure. But the monetary treasure had been smuggled out three months earlier. Could the Cathar ‘treasure’, like the ‘treasure’ Sauniere discovered, have consisted primarily of a secret? Could that secret have been related, in some unimaginable way, to something that became known as the Holy Grail? It seemed inconceivable to us that the Grail romances could possibly be taken literally. In any case, whatever was smuggled out of Montsegur had to have been taken somewhere. According to tradition, it was taken to the fortified caves of Ornolac in the Ariege, where a band of Cathars was exterminated shortly after. But nothing save skeletons has ever been found at Ornolac. On the other hand, Rennes-leChateau is only half a day’s ride on horseback from Montsegur. Whatever was smuggled out of Montsegur might well have been brought to Rennes-leChateau, or, more likely, to one of the caves which honeycomb the surrounding mountains. And if the ‘secret’ of Montsegur was what Sauniere subsequently discovered, that would obviously explain a great deal. In the case of the Cathars, as with Sauniere, the word ‘treasure’ seems to hide something else knowledge or information of some kind.

Given the tenacious adherence of the Cathars to their creed and their militant antipathy to Rome, we wondered if such knowledge or information (assuming it existed) related in some way to Christianity -to the doctrines and theology of Christianity, perhaps to its history and origins. Was it possible, in short, that the Cathars (or at least certain Cathars) knew something -something that contributed to the frenzied fervour with which Rome sought their extermination? The priest who had written to us had referred to ‘incontrovertible proof’. Could such ‘proof’ have been known to the Cathars? At the time, we could only speculate idly. And information on the Cathars was in general so meagre that it precluded even a working hypothesis. On the other hand our research into the Cathars had repeatedly impinged on another subject, even more enigmatic and mysterious, and surrounded by evocative legends. This subject was the Knights Templar. It was therefore to the Templars that we next directed our investigation. And it was with the Templars that our inquiries began to yield concrete documentation, and the mystery began to assume far greater proportions than we had ever imagined. 3 The Warrior Monks To research the Knights Templar proved a daunting undertaking. The voluminous quantity of written material devoted to the subject was intimidating; and we could not at first be sure how much of this material was reliable. If the Cathars had engendered a welter of spurious and romantic legend, the mystification surrounding the Templars was even greater. On one level they were familiar enough to us the fanatically fierce warrior-monks, knight-mystics clad in white mantle with splayed red cross, who played so crucial a role in the Crusades. Here, in some sense, were the archetypal crusaders the storm-troopers of the Holy Land, who fought and died heroically for Christ in their thousands. Yet many writers, even today, regarded them as a much more mysterious institution, an essentially secret order, intent on obscure intrigues, clandestine machinations, shadowy conspiracies and designs. And there remained one perplexing and inexplicable fact. At the end of their two-century-long career, these white garbed champions of Christ were accused of denying and repudiating Christ, of trampling and spitting on the cross. In Scott’s Ivanhoe the Templars are depicted as haughty and arrogant bullies, greedy and hypocritical despots shamelessly abusing their power, cunning manipulators orchestrating the affairs of men and kingdoms. In other nineteenth-century writers they are depicted as vile satanists, devil-worshippers, practitioners of all manner of obscene, abominable and/or heretical rites. More recent historians have been inclined to view them as hapless victims, sacrificial pawns in the high-level political manoeuvrings of Church and state.

And there are yet other writers, especially in the tradition of Freemasonry, who regard the Templars as mystical adepts and initiates, custodians of an arcane wisdom that transcends Christianity itself. Whatever the particular bias or orientation of such writers, no one disputes the heroic zeal of the Templars or their contribution to history. Nor is there any question that their order is one of the most glamorous and enigmatic institutions in the annals of Western culture. No account of the Crusades or, for that matter, of Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries will neglect to mention the Templars. At their zenith they were the most powerful and influential organisation in the whole of Christendom, with the single possible exception of the papacy. And yet certain haunting questions remain. Who and what were the Knights Templar? Were they merely what they appeared to be, or were they something else? Were they simple soldiers on to whom an aura of legend and mystification was subsequently grafted? If so, why? Alternatively was there a genuine mystery connected with them? Could there have been some foundation for the later embellishments of myth? We first considered the accepted accounts of the Templars the accounts offered by respected and responsible historians. On virtually every point these accounts raised more questions than they answered. They not only collapsed under scrutiny, but suggested some sort of ‘cover-up’. We could not escape the suspicion that something had been deliberately concealed and a ‘cover story’ manufactured, which later historians had merely repeated. Knights Templar The Orthodox Account So far as is generally known, the first historical information on the Templars is provided by a Frankish historian, Guillaume de Tyre, who wrote between 1175 and 1185. This was at the peak of the Crusades, when Western armies had already conquered the Holy Land and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem or, as it was called by the Templars themselves, “Outremer’, the “Land Beyond the Sea’.

But by the time Guillaume de Tyre began to write, Palestine had been in Western hands for seventy years, and the Templars had already been in existence for more than fifty. Guillaume was therefore writing of events which predated his own lifetime events which he had not personally witnessed or experienced, but had learnt of at second or even third hand. At second or third hand and, moreover, on the basis of uncertain authority. For there were no Western chroniclers in Outremer between 1127 and 1144. Thus there are no written records for those crucial years. We do not, in short, know much of Guillaume’s sources, and this may well call some of his statements into question. He may have been drawing on popular word of mouth, on a none too reliable oral tradition. Alternatively, he may have consulted the Templars themselves and recounted what they told him. If this is so, it means he is reporting only what the Templars wanted him to report. Granted, Guillaume does provide us with certain basic information; and it is this information on which all subsequent accounts of the Templars, all explanations of their foundation, all narratives of their activities have been based. But because of Guillaume’s vagueness and sketchiness, because of the time at which he was writing, because of the death of documented sources, he constitutes a precarious basis on which to build a definitive picture. Guillaume’s chronicles are certainly useful. But it is a mistake and one to which many historians have succumbed to regard them as unimpugnable and wholly accurate. Even Guillaume’s dates, as Sir Steven Runciman stresses, ‘are confused and at times demonstrably wrong’.” According to Guillaume de Tyre, the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon was founded in 1118. Its founder is said to be one Hugues de Payen, a nobleman from Champagne and vassal of the count of Champagne.” One day Hugues, unsolicited, presented himself with eight comrades at the palace of Baudouin I -king of Jerusalem, whose elder brother, Godfroi de Bouillon, had captured the Holy City nineteen years before. Baudouin seems to have received them most cordially, as did the Patriarch of Jerusalem the religious leader of the new kingdom and special emissary of the pope. The declared objective of the Templars, Guillaume de Tyre continues, was, ‘as far as their strength permitted, they should keep the roads and highways safe .. . with especial regard for the protection of pilgrims ‘.3 So worthy was this objective apparently that the king placed an entire wing of the royal palace at the knights’ disposal. And, despite their declared oath of poverty, the knights moved into this lavish accommodation. According to tradition, their quarters were built on the foundations of the ancient Temple of Solomon, and from this the fledgling Order derived its name. For nine years, Guillaume de Tyre tells us, the nine knights admitted no new candidates to their Order. They were still supposed to be living in poverty such poverty that official seals show two knights riding a single horse, implying not only brotherhood, but also a penury that precluded separate mounts. This style of seal is often regarded as the most famous and distinctive of Templar devices, descending from the first days of the Order. However, it actually dates from a full century later, when the Templars were hardly poor if, indeed, they ever were. According to Guillaume de Tyre, writing a half century later, the Templars were established in 1118 and moved into the king’s palace presumably sallying out from here to protect pilgrims on the Holy Land’s highways and byways. And yet there was, at this time, an official royal historian, employed by the king. His name was Fulk de Chartres, and he was writing not fifty years after the Order’s purported foundation but during the very years in question. Curiously enough, Fulk de Chartres makes no mention whatever of Hugues de Payen, Hugues’s companions or anything even remotely connected with the Knights Templar. Indeed there is a thunderous silence about Templar activities during the early days of their existence. Certainly there is no record anywhere not even later of them doing anything to protect pilgrims. And one cannot but wonder how so few men could hope to fulfill so mammoth a self-imposed task. Nine men to protect the pilgrims on all the thoroughfares of the Holy Land? Only nine? And all pilgrims? If this was their objective, one would surely expect them to welcome new recruits.

Yet, according to Guillaume de Tyre, they admitted no new candidates to the Order for nine years. None the less, within a decade the Templars’ fame seems to have spread back to Europe. Ecclesiastical authorities spoke highly of them and extolled their Christian undertaking. By 1128, or shortly thereafter, a tract lauding their virtues and qualities was issued by no less a person than Saint Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux and the age’s chief spokesman for Christendom. Bernard’s tract, “In Praise of the New Knighthood’, declares the Templars to be the epitome and apotheosis of Christian values. After nine years, in 1127, most of the nine knights returned to Europe and a triumphal welcome, orchestrated in large part by Saint Bernard. In January 1128 a Church council was convened at Troyes court of the count of Champagne, Hugues de Payen’s liege lord at which Bernard was again the guiding spirit. At this council the Templars were officially recognised and incorporated as a religious military order. Hugues de Payen was given the title of Grand Master. He and his subordinates were to be warrior-monks, soldier-mystics, combining the austere discipline of the cloister with a martial zeal tantamount to fanaticism a “militia of Christ’, as they were called at the time. And it was again Saint Bernard who helped to draw up, with an enthusiastic preface, the rule of conduct to which the knights would adhere a rule based on that of the Cistercian monastic order, in which Bernard himself was a dominant influence. The Templa~s were sworn to poverty, chastity and obedience. They were obliged to cut their hair but forbidden to cut their beards, thus distinguishing themselves in an age when most men were clean-shaven. Diet, dress and other aspects of daily life were stringently regulated in accordance with both monastic and military routines. All members of the Order were obliged to wear white habits or surcoats and cloaks, and these soon evolved into the distinctive white mantle for which the Templars became famous. “It is granted to none to wear white habits, or to have white mantles, excepting the .. . Knights of Christ.” So stated the Order’s rule, which elaborated on the symbolic significance of this apparel, “To all the professed knights, both in winter and in summer, we give, if they can be procured, white garments, that those who have cast behind them a dark life may know Map 4The Major Castles and Towns of the Holy Land in the Mid-Twelfth Century Ton.- \ s.r~a 1 – – TRIPOLI – I
_- i __ I Sidon I I DAMASCUS Beaofor< — –_7yrej – _A
__ -_Tibenae SraofGafilrr – I – Cacaarea – E”
Jaffa”\ / / / -JERUSALEM *
Aaralon -1 _ 1- _ C–1 I)eadSca 1 \ I \ Kcrakl \ 1 \ 1 MI nc real \ 1 \ I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I Petra ~ \1\\ / / that they are to commend themselves to their creator by a pure and white life. ‘5 In addition to these details, the rule established a loose administrative hierarchy and apparatus. And behaviour on the battlefield was strictly controlled. If captured, for instance, Templars were not allowed to ask for mercy or to ransom themselves. They were compelled to fight to the death. Nor were they permitted to retreat, unless the odds against them exceeded three to one. In 11396 a Papal Bull was issued by Pope Innocent II a former Cistercian monk at Clairvaux and protege of Saint Bernard. According to this Bull, the Templars would owe allegiance to no secular or ecclesiastical power other than the pope himself. In other words, they were rendered totally independent of all kings, princes and prelates, and all interference from both political and religious authorities. They had become, in effect, a law unto themselves, an autonomous international empire. During the two decades following the Council of Troyes, the Order expanded with extraordinary rapidity and on an extraordinary scale. When Hugues de Payen visited England in late 1128, he was received with “great worship’ by King Henry I. Throughout Europe, younger sons of noble families flocked to enroll in the Order’s ranks, and vast donations in money, goods and land were made from every quarter of Christendom. Hugues de Payen donated his own properties, and all new recruits were obliged to do likewise. On admission to the Order, a man was compelled to sign over all his possessions. Given such policies, it is not surprising that Templar holdings proliferated. Within a mere twelve months of the Council of Troyes, the Order held substantial estates in France, England, Scotland, Flanders, Spain and Portugal. Within another decade, it also held territory in Italy, Austria, Germany, Hungary, the Holy Land and points east. Although individual knights were bound to their vow of poverty, this did not prevent the Order from amassing wealth, and on an unprecedented scale. All gifts were welcomed. At the same time, the Order was forbidden to dispose of anything not even to ransom its leaders. The Temple received in abundance but, as a matter of strict policy, it never gave.

When Hugues de Payen returned to Palestine in 1130, therefore, with an entourage quite considerable for the time of some three hundred knights, he left behind, in the custody of other recruits, vast tracts of European territory. In 1146 the Templars adopted the famous splayed red cross the cross pat tee With this device emblazoned on their mantles, the knights accompanied King Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade. Here they established their reputation for martial zeal coupled with an almost insane foolhardiness, and a fierce arrogance as well. On the whole, however, they were magnificently disciplined -the most disciplined fighting force in the world at the time. The French king himself wrote that it was the Templars alone who prevented the Second Crusade ill-conceived and mismanaged as it was from degenerating into a total debacle. During the next hundred years the Templars became a power with international influence. They were constantly engaged in high-level diplomacy between nobles and monarchs throughout the Western world and the Holy Land. In England, for example, the Master of the Temple was regularly called to the king’s Parliament, and was regarded as head of all religious orders, taking precedence over all priors and abbots in the land. Maintaining close links with both Henry II and Thomas a Becket, the Templars were instrumental in trying to reconcile the sovereign and his estranged archbishop. Successive English kings, including King John, often resided in the Temple’s London preceptory, and the Master of the Order stood by the monarch’s side at the signing of the Magna Carta.” Nor was the Order’s political involvement confined to Christendom alone. Close links were forged with the Muslim world as well the world so often opposed on the battlefield and the Templars commanded a respect from Saracen leaders exceeding that accorded any other Europeans. Secret connections were also maintained with the Hashishim or Assassins, the famous sect of militant and often fanatical adepts who were Islam’s equivalent of the Templars. The Hashishim paid tribute to the Templars and were rumoured to be in their employ.

On almost every political level the Templars acted as official arbiters in disputes, and even kings submitted to their authority. In 1252 Henry III of England dared to challenge them, threatening to confiscate certain of their domains. “You Templars .. . have so many liberties and charters that your enormous possessions make you rave with pride and haughtiness. What was imprudently given must therefore be prudently revoked; and what was inconsiderately bestowed must be considerately recalled.” The Master of the Order replied, “What sayest thou, O King? Far be it that thy mouth should utter so disagreeable and silly a word. So long as thou dost exercise justice, thou wilt reign. But if thou infringe it, thou wilt cease to be King.” It is difficult to convey to the modern mind the enormity and audacity of this statement. Implicitly the Master is taking for his Order and himself a power that not even the papacy dared explicitly claim the power to make or depose monarchs. At the same time, the Templars’ interests extended beyond war, diplomacy and political intrigue. In effect they created and established the institution of modern banking. By lending vast sums to destitute monarchs they became the bankers for every throne in Europe and for certain Muslim potentates as well. With their network of preceptories throughout Europe and the Middle East, they also organised, at modest interest rates, the safe and efficient transfer of money for merchant traders, a class which became increasingly dependent upon them. Money deposited in one city, for example, could be claimed and withdrawn in another, by means of promissory notes inscribed in intricate codes. The Templars thus became the primary money-changers of the age, and the Paris preceptory became the centre of European finance.9 It is even probable that the cheque, as we know and use it today, was invented by the Order. And the Templars traded not only in money, but in thought as well. Through their sustained and sympathetic contact with Islamic and Judaic culture, they came to act as a clearing-house for new ideas, new dimensions of knowledge, new sciences. They enjoyed a veritable monopoly on the best and most advanced technology of their age the best that could be produced by armourers, leather-workers, stone masons military architects and engineers.

They contributed to the development of surveying, map-making, road-building and navigation. They possessed their own sea-ports, shipyards and fleet, a fleet both commercial and military, which was among the first to use the magnetic compass. And as soldiers, the Templars’ need to treat wounds and illness made them adept in the use of drugs. The Order maintained its own hospitals with its own physicians and surgeons whose use of mould extract suggests an understanding of the properties of antibiotics. Modern principles of hygiene and cleanliness were understood. And with an understanding also in advance of their time they regarded epilepsy not as demonic possession but as a controllable disease. ‘ Inspired by its own accomplishments, the Temple in Europe grew increasingly wealthy, powerful and complacent. Not surprisingly perhaps, it also grew increasingly arrogant, brutal and corrupt. “To drink like a Templar’ became a cliche of the time. And certain sources assert that the Order made a point of recruiting excommunicated knights. But while the Templars attained both prosperity and notoriety in Europe, the situation in the Holy Land had seriously deteriorated. In 1185 King Baudouin IV of Jerusalem died. In the dynastic squabble that followed, Gerard de Ridefort, Grand Master of the Temple, betrayed an oath made to the dead monarch, and thereby brought the European community in Palestine to the brink of civil war. Nor was this Ridefort’s only questionable action. His cavalier attitude towards the Saracens precipitated the rupture of a long-standing truce, and provoked a new cycle of hostilities. Then, in July 1187, Ridefort led his knights, along with the rest of the Christian army, into a rash, misconceived and, as it transpired, disastrous battle at Hattin. The Christian forces were virtually annihilated; and two months later Jerusalem itself captured nearly a century before was again in Saracen hands. During the following century the situation became increasingly hopeless. By 1291 nearly the whole of Outremer had fallen, and the Holy Land was almost entirely under Muslim control. Only Acre remained, and in May 1291 this last fortress was lost as well. In defending the doomed city, the Templars showed themselves at their most heroic. The Grand Master himself, though severely wounded, continued fighting until his death.

As there was only limited space in the Order’s galleys, the women and children were evacuated, while all knights, even the wounded, chose to remain behind. When the last bastion in Arce fell, it did so with apocalyptic intensity, the walls collapsing and burying attackers and defenders alike. The Templars established their new headquarters in Cyprus; but with the loss of the Holy Land, they had effectively been deprived of their raison d’etre. As there were no longer any accessible infidel lands to conquer, the Order began to turn its attention towards Europe, hoping to find there a justification for its continued existence. A century before, the Templars had presided over the foundation of another chivalric, religious-military order, the Teutonic Knights. The latter were active in small numbers in the Middle East, but by the mid-thirteenth century had turned their attention to the north-eastern frontiers of Christendom. Here they had carved out an independent principality for themselves the Ordenstoat or Ordensland, which encompassed almost the whole of the eastern Baltic. In this principality which extended from Prussia to the Gulf of Finland and what is now Russian soil the Teutonic Knights enjoyed an unchallenged sovereignty, far from the reach of both secular and ecclesiastical control. From the very inception of the Ordenstaat, the Templars had envied the independence and immunity of their kindred order. After the fall of the Holy Land, they thought increasingly of a state of their own in which they might exercise the same untrammelled authority and autonomy as the Teutonic Knights. Unlike the Teutonic Knights, however, the Templars were not interested in the harsh wilderness of Eastern Europe. By now they were too accustomed to luxury and opulence. Accordingly, they dreamed of founding their state on more accessible, more congenial soil that of the Languedoc.” From its earliest years, the Temple had maintained a certain warm rapport with the Cathars, especially in the Languedoc. Many wealthy landowners Cathars themselves or sympathetic to the Cathars had donated vast tracts of land to the Order. According to a recent writer, at least one of the co-founders of the Temple was a Cathar.

This seems somewhat improbable, but it is beyond dispute that Bertrand de Blanchefort, fourth Grand Master of the Order, came from a Cathar family. Forty years after Bertrand’s death, his descendants were fighting side by side with other Cathar lords against the Northern invaders of Simon de Montfort. ‘2 During the Albigensian Crusade, the Templars ostensibly remained neutral, confining themselves to the role of witnesses. At the same time, however, the Grand Master at the time would seem to have made the Order’s position clear when he declared there was in fact only one true Crusade the Crusade against the Saracens. Moreover, a careful examination of contemporary accounts reveals that the Templars provided a haven for many Cathar refugees.”? On occasion they do seem to have taken up arms on these refugees’ behalf. And an inspection of the Order’s rolls towards the beginning of the Albigensian Crusade reveals a major influx of Cathars into the Temple’s ranks where not even Simon de Montfort’s crusaders would dare to challenge them. Indeed, the Templar rolls of the period show that a significant proportion of the Order’s high-ranking dignitaries were from Cathar families. 14 In the Languedoc Temple officials were more frequently Cathar than Catholic. What is more, the Cathar nobles who enrolled in the Temple do not appear to have moved about the world as much as their Catholic brethren. On the contrary, they appear to have remained for the most part in the Languedoc, thus creating for the Order a long-standing and stable base in the region. By virtue of their contact with Islamic and Judaic cultures, the Templars had already absorbed a great many ideas alien to orthodox Roman Christianity. Templar Masters, for example, often employed Arab secretaries, and many Templars, having learnt Arabic in captivity, were fluent in the language. A close rapport was also maintained with Jewish communities, financial interests and scholarship. The Templars had thus been exposed to many things Rome would not ordinarily countenance. Through the influx of Cathar recruits, they were now exposed to Gnostic dualism as well if, indeed, they had ever really been strangers to it. By 1306 Philippe IV of France Philippe le Bel was acutely anxious to rid his territory of the Templars.

They were arrogant and unruly. They were efficient and highly trained, a professional military force much stronger and better organised than any he himself could muster. They were firmly established throughout France, and by this time even their allegiance to the pope was only nominal. Philippe had no control over the Order. He owed it money. He had been humiliated when, fleeing a rebellious Paris mob, he was obliged to seek abject refuge in the Temple’s preceptory. He coveted the Templars’ immense wealth, which his sojourn in their premises made flagrantly apparent to him. And, having applied to join the Order as a postulant, he had suffered the indignity of being haughtily rejected. These factors together, of course, with the alarming prospect of an independent Templar state at his back door were sufficient to spur the king to action. And heresy was a convenient excuse. Philippe first had to enlist the co-operation of the pope, to whom, in theory at any rate, the Templars owed allegiance and obedience. Between 1303 and 1305, the French king and his ministers engineered the kidnapping and death of one pope (Boniface VIII) and quite possibly the murder by poison of another (Benedict XI). Then, in 1305, Philippe managed to secure the election of his own candidate, the archbishop of Bordeaux, to the vacant papal throne. The new pontiff took the name Clement V. Indebted as he was to Philippe’s influence, he could hardly refuse the king’s demands. Philippe planned his moves carefully. A list of charges was compiled, partly from the king’s spies who had infiltrated the Order, partly from the voluntary confession of an alleged renegade Templar. Armed with these accusations, Philippe could at last move; and when he delivered his blow, it was sudden, swift, efficient and lethal. In a security operation worthy of the SS or Gestapo, the king issued sealed and secret orders to his seneschals throughout the country. These orders were to be opened everywhere simultaneously and implemented at once. At dawn on Friday, October 13th, 1307, all Templars in France were to be seized and placed under arrest by the king’s men, their preceptories placed under royal sequestration, their goods confiscated.

But although Philippe’s objective of surprise might seem to have been achieved, his primary interest the Order’s immense wealth eluded him. It was never found, and what became of the fabulous ‘treasure of the Templars’ has remained a mystery. In fact it is doubtful whether Philippe’s surprise attack on the Order was as unexpected as he, or subsequent historians, believed. There is considerable evidence to suggest the Templars received some kind of advance warning. Shortly before the arrests, for example, the Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, called in many of the Order’s books and extant rules, and had them burnt. A knight who withdrew from the Order at this time was told by the treasurer that he was extremely ‘wise’, as catastrophe was imminent. An official note was circulated to all French preceptories, stressing that no information regarding the Order’s customs and rituals was to be released. In any case, whether the Templars were warned in advance or whether they deduced what was in the wind, certain precautions were definitely taken. ‘5 In the first place the knights who were captured seem to have submitted passively, as if under instructions to do so. At no point is there any record of the Order in France actively resisting the king’s seneschals. In the second place there is persuasive evidence of some sort of organised flight by a particular group of knights virtually all of whom were in some way connected with the Order’s Treasurer. It is not perhaps surprising, therefore, that the treasure of the Temple, together with almost all its documents and records, should have disappeared. Persistent but unsubstantiated rumours speak of the treasure being smuggled by night from the Paris preceptory, shortly before the arrests. According to these rumours, it was transported by wagons to the coast presumably to the Order’s naval base at La Rochelle and loaded into eighteen galleys, which were never heard of again. Whether this is true or not, it would seem that the Templars’ fleet escaped the king’s clutches because there is no report of any of the Order’s ships being taken. On the contrary, those ships appear to have vanished totally, along with whatever they might have been carrying.”

In France the arrested Templars were tried and many subjected to torture. Strange confessions were extracted and even stranger accusations made. Grim rumours began to circulate about the country. The Templars supposedly worshipped a devil called Baphomet. At their secret ceremonies they supposedly prostrated themselves before a bearded male head, which spoke to them and invested them with occult powers. Unauthorised witnesses of these ceremonies were never seen again. And there were other charges as well, which were even more vague: of infanticide; of teaching women how to abort; of obscene kisses at the induction of postulants; of homosexuality. But of all the charges levelled against these soldiers of Christ, who had fought and laid down their lives for Christ, one stands out as most bizarre and seemingly improbable. They were accused of ritually denying Christ, of repudiating, trampling and spitting on the cross. In France, at least, the fate of the arrested Templars was effectively sealed. Philippe harried them savagely and mercilessly. Many were burned, many more imprisoned and tortured. At the same time the king continued to bully the pope, demanding ever more stringent measures against the Order. After resisting for a time, the pope gave way in 1312, and the Knights Templar were officially dissolved without a conclusive verdict of guilt or innocence ever being pronounced. But in Philippe’s domains, the trials, inquiries and investigations continued for another two years. At last, in March 1314, Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master, and Geoffroi de Charnay, Preceptor of Normandy, were roasted to death over a slow fire. With their execution, the Templars ostensibly vanish from the stage of history. Nevertheless, the Order did not cease to exist. Given the number of knights who escaped, who remained at large or who were acquitted, it would be surprising if it had. Philippe had tried to influence his fellow monarchs, hoping thereby to ensure that no Templar, anywhere in Christendom, should be spared. Indeed, the king’s zeal in this respect is almost suspicious. One can perhaps understand him wanting to rid his own domains of the Order’s presence. It is rather less clear why he should have been so intent on exterminating Templars elsewhere.

Certainly he himself was no model of virtue; and it is difficult to imagine a monarch who arranged for the deaths of two popes being genuinely distressed by infringements of faith. Did Philippe simply fear vengeance if the Order remained intact outside France? Or was there something else involved? In any case, his attempt to eliminate Templars outside France was not altogether successful. Philippe’s own sonin-law, for example, Edward II of England, at first rallied to the Order’s defence. Eventually, pressured by both the pope and the French king, he complied with their demands, but only partially and tepidly. Although most Templars in England seem to have escaped completely, a number were arrested. Of these, however, most received only light sentences sometimes no more than a few years’ penance in abbeys and monasteries, where they lived in generally comfortable conditions. Their lands were eventually consigned to the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John, but they themselves were spared the vicious persecution visited upon their brethren in France. Elsewhere the elimination of the Templars met with even greater difficulty. Scotland, for instance, was at war with England at the time, and the consequent chaos left little opportunity for implementing legal niceties. Thus the Papal Bulls dissolving the Order were never proclaimed in Scotland and in Scotland, therefore, the Order was never technically dissolved. Many English and, it would appear, French Templars found a Scottish refuge, and a sizeable contingent is said to have fought at Robert Bruce’s side at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. According to legend coherent body in Scotland for another four centuries. In the fighting of 1688-91, James II of England was deposed by William of Orange. In Scotland supporters of the beleaguered Stuart monarch rose in revolt and, at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689, John Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee, was killed on the field. When his body was recovered, he was reportedly found to be wearing the Grand Cross of the Order of the Temple -not a recent device supposedly, but one dating from before 1307.” In Lorraine, which was part of Germany at the time, not part of France, the Templars were supported by the duke of the principality. A few were tried and exonerated.

Most, it seems, obeyed their Preceptor, who reputedly advised them to shave their beards, don secular garb and assimilate themselves into the local populace. In Germany proper the Templars openly defied their judges, threatening to take up arms. Intimidated, their judges pronounced them innocent; and when the Order was officially dissolved, many German Templars found a haven in the Hospitallers of Saint John and in the Teutonic Order. In Spain, too, the Templars resisted their persecutors and found a refuge in other orders. In Portugal the Order was cleared by an inquiry and simply modified its name, becoming Knights of Christ. Under this title they functioned well into the sixteenth century, devoting themselves to maritime activity. Vasco da Gama was a Knight of Christ, and Prince Henry the Navigator was a Grand Master of the Order. Ships of the Knights of Christ sailed under the familiar red pat tee cross. And it was under the same cross that Christopher Columbus’s three caravels crossed the Atlantic to the New World. Columbus himself was married to the daughter of a former Knight of Christ, and had access to his father-inlaw’s charts and diaries. Thus, in a number of diverse ways, the Templars survived the attack of October 13th, 1307. And in 1522 the Templars’ Prussian progeny, the Teutonic Knights, seculari sed themselves, repudiated their allegiance to Rome and threw their support behind an upstart rebel and heretic named Martin Luther. Two centuries after their dissolution, the Templars, however vicariously, were exacting revenge on the Church which had betrayed them. Knights Templar The Mysteries In greatly abridged form, this is the history of the Knights Templar as writers have accepted and presented it, and as we encountered it in our research. But we quickly discovered that there was another dimension to the Order’s history, considerably more elusive, more provocative and more speculative. Even during their existence, a mystique had come to surround the knights. Some said they were sorcerers and magicians, secret adepts and alchemists.

Many of their contemporaries shunned them, believing them to be in league with unclean powers. As early as 1208, at the beginning of the Albigensian Crusade, Pope Innocent III had admonished “the Templars for un-Christian behaviour, and referred explicitly to necromancy. On the other hand, there were individuals who praised them with extravagant enthusiasm. In the late twelfth century Wolfram von Eschenbach, greatest of medieval Minnesanger or romanciers, paid a special visit to Outremer, to witness the Order in action. And when, between 1195 and 1220, Wolfram composed his epic romance Parzival, he conferred on the Templars a most exalted status. In Wolfram’s poem the knights who guard the Holy Grail, the Grail castle and the Grail family, are Templars.”e After the Temple’s demise, the mystique surrounding it persisted. The final recorded act in the Order’s history had been the burning of the last Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, in March 1314. As the smoke from the slow fire choked the life from his body, Jacques de Molay is said to have issued an imprecation from the flames. According to tradition, he called his persecutors Pope Clement and King Philippe to join him and account for themselves before the court of God within the year. Within a month Pope Clement was dead, supposedly from a sudden onslaught of dysentery. By the end of the year Philippe was dead as well, from causes that remain obscure to this day. There is, of course, no need to look for supernatural explanations. The Templars possessed great expertise in the use of poisons. And there were certainly enough people about refugee knights travelling incognito, sympathisers of the Order or relatives of persecuted brethren to exact the appropriate vengeance. Nevertheless, the apparent fulfilment of the Grand Master’s curse lent credence to belief in the Order’s occult powers. Nor did the curse end there. According to legend, it was to cast a pall over the French royal line far into the future. And thus echoes of the Templars’ supposed mystic power reverberated down the centuries. By the eighteenth century various secret and semi secret confraternities were lauding the Templars as both precursors and mystical initiates.

Many Freemasons of the period appropriated the Templars as their own antecedents. Certain Masonic “rites’ or “observances’ claimed direct lineal descent from the Order, as well as authorised custody of its arcane secrets. Some of these claims were patently preposterous. Others resting, for example, on the Order’s possible survival in Scotland -may well have a core of validity, even if the attendant trappings are spurious. By 1789 the legends surrounding the Templars had attained positively mythic proportions, and their historical reality was obscured by an aura of obfuscation and romance. They were regarded as occult adepts, illumined alchemists, magi and sages, master masons and high initiates veritable supermen endowed with an awesome arsenal of arcane power and knowledge. They were also regarded as heroes and martyrs. harbingers of the anticlerical spirit of the age; and many French Freemasons, in conspiring against Louis XVI, felt they were helping to implement Jacques de Molay’s dying curse on the French line. When the king’s head fell beneath the guillotine, an unknown man is reported to have leaped on to the scaffold. He dipped his hand in the monarch’s blood, flung it out over the surrounding throng and cried, “Jacques de Molay, thou art avenged!” Since the French Revolution the aura surrounding the Templars has not diminished. At least three contemporary organisations today call themselves Templars, claiming to possess a pedigree from 1314 and charters whose authenticity has never been established. Certain Masonic lodges have adopted the grade of “Templar’, as well as rituals and appellations supposedly descended from the original Order. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, a sinister “Order of the New Templars’ was established in Germany and Austria, employing the swastika as one of its emblems. Figures like H. P. Blavatsky, founder of Theosophy, and Rudolf Steiner, founder of Anthroposophy, spoke of an esoteric ‘wisdom tradition’ running back through the Rosicrucians to the Cathars and Templars who were purportedly repositories of more ancient secrets still. In the United States teenage boys are admitted into the De Molay Society, without either they or their mentors having much notion whence the name derives. In Britain, as well as elsewhere in the West, recondite rotary clubs dignify themselves with the name “Templar’ and include eminent public figures.

From the heavenly kingdom he sought to conquer with his sword, Hugues de Payen must now look down with a certain wry perplexity on the latter-day knights, balding, paunched and bespectacled, that he engendered. And yet he must also be impressed by the durability and vitality of his legacy. In France this legacy is particularly powerful. Indeed, the Templars are a veritable industry in France, as much as Glastonbury, ley-lines or the Loch Ness Monster are in Britain. In Paris book shops are filled with histories and accounts of the Order some valid, some plunging enthusiastically into lunacy. During the last quartercentury or so a number of extravagant claims have been advanced on behalf of the Templars, some of which may not be wholly without foundation. Certain writers have credited them, at least in large part, with the building of the Gothic cathedrals or at least with providing an impetus of some sort to that burst of architectural energy and genius. Other writers have argued that the Order established commercial contact with the Americas as early as 1269, and derived much of its wealth from imported Mexican silver. It has frequently been asserted that the Templars were privy to some sort of secret concerning the origins of Christianity. It has been said that they were Gnostic, that they were heretical, that they were defectors to Islam. It has been declared that they sought a creative unity between bloods, races and religions a systematic policy of fusion between Islamic, Christian and Judaic thought. And again and again it is maintained, as Wolfram von Eschenbach maintained nearly eight centuries ago, that the Templars were guardians of the Holy Grail, whatever the Holy Grail might be. The claims are often ridiculous. At the same time there are unquestionably mysteries associated with’ the Templars and, we became convinced, secrets of some kind as well. It was clear that some of these secrets pertained to what is now called ‘esoterica’. Symbolic carvings in Templar preceptories, for instance, suggest that some officials in the Order’s hierarchy were conversant with such disciplines as astrology, alchemy, sacred geometry and numerology, as well, of course, as astronomy which, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, was inseparable from astrology, and every bit as ‘esoteric’.

But it was neither the extravagant claims nor the esoteric residues that intrigued us. On the contrary, we found ourselves fascinated by something much more mundane, much more prosaic the welter of contradictions, improbabilities, inconsistencies and apparent “smoke-screens’ in the accepted history. Esoteric secrets the Templars may well have had. But something else about them was being concealed as well something rooted in the religious and political currents of their epoch. It was on this level that we undertook most of our investigation. We began with the end of the story, the fall of the Order and the charges levelled against it. Many books have been written exploring and evaluating the possible truth of these charges; and from the evidence we, like most researchers, concluded there seems to have been some basis for them. Subjected to interrogation by the Inquisition, for example, a number of knights referred to something called “Baphomet’ too many, and in too many different places, for Baphomet to be the invention of a single individual or even a single preceptory. At the same time, there is no indication of who or what Baphomet might have been, what he or it represented, why he or it should have had any special significance. It would appear that Baphomet was regarded with reverence, a reverence perhaps tantamount to idolatry. In some instances the name is associated with the gargoyle-like, demonic sculptures found in various preceptories. On other occasions Baphomet seems to be associated with an apparition of a bearded head. Despite the claims of certain older historians, it seems clear that Baphomet was not a corruption of the name Muhammad. On the other hand, it might have been a corruption of the Arabic abufihamet, pronounced in Moorish Spanish as bufihimat. This means “Father of Understanding’ or “Father of Wisdom’, and ‘father’ in Arabic is also taken to imply ‘source’.””’ If this is indeed the origin of Baphomet, it would therefore refer presumably to some supernatural or divine principle. But what might have differentiated Baphomet from any other supernatural or divine principle remains unclear. If Baphomet was simply God or Allah, why did the Templars bother to re-christen Him? And if Baphomet was not God or Allah, who or what was he? In any case, we found indisputable evidence for the charge of secret ceremonies involving a head of some kind.

Indeed the existence of such a head proved to be one of the dominant themes running through the Inquisition records. As with Baphomet, however, the significance of the head remains obscure. It may perhaps pertain to alchemy. In the alchemical process there was a phase called the “Caput Mortuum’ or “Dead Head’ the “Nigredo’ or “Blackening’ which was said to occur before the precipitation of the Philosopher’s Stone. According to other accounts, however, the head was that of Hugues de Payen, the Order’s founder and first Grand Master; and it is suggestive that Hugues’s shield consisted of three black heads on a gold field. The head may also be connected with the famous Turin Shroud, which seems to have been in the possession of the Templars between 1204 and 1307, and which, if folded, would have appeared as nothing more than a head. Indeed, at the Templar preceptory of Templecombe in Somerset a reproduction of a head was found which bears a striking resemblance to that on the Turin Shroud. At the same time recent speculation had linked the head, at least tentatively, with the severed head of John the Baptist; and certain writers have suggested that the Templars were “infected’ with the johannite or Mandaean heresy which denounced Jesus as a ‘false prophet’ and acknowledged John as the true Messiah. In the course of their activities in the Middle East the Templars undoubtedly established contact with johannite sects, and the possibility of Johannite tendencies in the Order is not altogether unlikely. But one cannot say that such tendencies obtained for the Order as a whole, nor that they were a matter of official policy. During the interrogations following the arrests in 1307, a head also figured in two other connections. According to the Inquisition records, among the confiscated goods of the Paris preceptory a reliquary in the shape of a woman’s head was found. It was hinged on top, and contained what appeared to have been relics of a peculiar kind. It is described as follows: a great head of gilded silver, most beautiful, and constituting the image of a woman. Inside were two head bones wrapped in a cloth of white linen, with another red cloth around it. A label was attached, on which was written the legend CAPUT LVIIIm. The bones inside were those of a rather small woman.z A curious relic especially for a rigidly monastic, military institution like the Templars. Yet a knight under interrogation, when confronted with this feminine head, declared it had no relation to the bearded male head used in the Order’s rituals. Caput LVIIIm -“Head 58m’ remains a baffling enigma. But it is worth noting that the ‘m’ may not be an ‘m’ at all, but U, the astrological symbol for Virgo .z’ The head figures again in another mysterious story traditionally linked with the Templars. It is worth quoting in one of its several variants: A great lady of Maraclea was loved by a Templar, a Lord of Sidon; but she died in her youth, and on the night of her burial, this wicked lover crept to the grave, dug up her body and violated it. Then a voice from the void bade him return in nine months time for he would find a son. He obeyed the injunction and at the appointed time he opened the grave again and found a head on the leg bones of the skeleton (skull and crossbones). The same voice bade him’ guard it well, for it would be the giver of all good things’, and so he carried it away with him. It became his protecting genius, and he was able to defeat his enemies by merely showing them the magic head. In due course, it passed into the possession of the Order .z2 This grisly narrative can be traced at least as far back as one Walter Map, writing in the late twelfth century. But neither he nor another writer, who recounts the same tale nearly a century later, specifies that the necrophiliac rapist was a Templar.Z3 Nevertheless, by 1307 the story had become closely associated with the Order. It is mentioned repeatedly in the Inquisition’s records, and at least two knights under interrogation confessed their familiarity with it. In subsequent accounts, like the one quoted above, the rapist himself is identified as a Templar, and he remains so in the versions preserved by Freemasonry which adopted the skull and crossbones, and often employed it as a device on tombstones. In part the tale might almost seem to be a grotesque travesty of the Immaculate Conception. In part it would seem to be a garbled symbolic account of some initiation rite, some ritual involving a figurative death and resurrection. One chronicler cites the name of the woman in the story Yse, which would seem quite clearly to derive from Isis. And certainly the tale evokes echoes of the mysteries associated with Isis, as well as those of Tammuz or Adonis, whose head was flung into the sea, and of Orpheus, whose head was flung into the river of the Milky Way. The magical properties of the head also evoke the head of Bran the Blessed in Celtic mythology and in the Mabinogion. And it is Bran’s mystical cauldron that numerous writers have sought to identify as the pagan precursor of the Holy Grail. Whatever significance might be ascribed to the ‘cult of the head’, the Inquisition clearly believed it to be important. In a list of charges drawn up on August 12th, 1308, there is the following: Item, that in each province they had idols, namely heads… Item, that they adored these idols .. . Item, that they said that the head could save them. Item, that lit could] make riches .. . Item, that it made the trees flower. Item, that it made the land germinate. Item, that they surrounded or touched each head of the aforesaid idols with small cords, which they wore around themselves next to the shirt or the flesh .24 The cord mentioned in the last item is reminiscent of the Cathars, who were also alleged to have worn a sacred cord of some kind. But most striking in the list is the head’s purported capacity to engender riches, make trees flower and bring fertility to the land. These properties coincide remarkably with those ascribed in the romances to the Holy Grail. Of all the charges levelled against the Templars, the most serious were those of blasphemy and heresy of denying, trampling and spitting on the cross. It is not clear precisely what this alleged ritual was intended to signify -what, in other words, the Templars were actually repudiating. Were they repudiating Christ? Or were they simply repudiating the Crucifixion? And whatever they repudiated, what exactly did they extol in its stead?

No one has satisfactorily answered these questions, but it seems clear that a repudiation of some sort did occur, and was an integral principle of the Order. One knight, for example, testified that on his induction into the Order he was told, “You believe wrongly, because he [Christ] is indeed a false prophet. Believe only in God in heaven, and not in him.”zs Another Templar declared that he was told, “Do not believe that the man Jesus whom the Jews crucified in Outremer is God and that he can save you.”zs A third knight similarly claimed he was instructed not to believe in Christ, a false prophet, but only in a “higher God’. He was then shown a crucifix and told, “Set not much faith in this, for it is too young.” Such accounts are frequent and consistent enough to lend credence to the charge. They are also relatively bland; and if the Inquisition desired to concoct evidence, it could have devised something far more dramatic, more incriminating, more damning. There thus seems little doubt that the Templars’ attitude towards Jesus did not concur with that of Catholic orthodoxy, but it is uncertain precisely what the Order’s attitude was. In any case, there is evidence that the ritual ascribed to the Templars -trampling and spitting on the cross was in the air at least half a century before 1307. Its context is confusing, but it is mentioned in connection with the Sixth Crusade, which occurred in 1249.28 Knights Templar The Hidden Side If the end of the Knights Templar was fraught with baffling enigmas, the foundation and early history of the Order seemed to us to be even more so. We were already plagued by a number of inconsistencies and improbabilities. Nine knights, nine “poor’ knights, appeared as if from nowhere and among all the other crusaders swarming about the Holy Land promptly had the king’s quarters turned over to them! Nine “poor’ knights without admit ting any new recruits to their ranks presumed, all by themselves, to defend the highways of Palestine. And there was no record at all of them actually doing any thing, not even from Fulk de Chartres, the king’s official chronicler, who must surely have known about Map 5Jerusalem the Temple and the Area of Mount Sion in the Mid-Twelfth Century BRh’ACH OF If199 I EPER HOSPII’AI~ Chorch4ih’HolyS~lchr~ FHE TEMPI .F ,i, o m “~4 C S, Man of,h, Lame._ S’Mary heGr S, Man d ih, F.<I’m~n I~ Bhp Moun~ 1I Ulno god Bwhun SI( IN GA’II’F. AHE’A OWNLD Ny’ F Ht: I’t)hFPLARS NOTE DAME Dt: SION (C-le and Tomb ~”I D-id) “IoBahleham them!

How, we wondered, could their activities, their move into the royal premises, for instance, have escaped Fulk’s notice? It would seem incredible, yet the chronicler says nothing. No one says anything, in fact, until Guillaume de Tyre, a good half century later. What could we conclude from this? That the knights were not engaged in the laudable public service ascribed to them? That they were perhaps involved instead in some more clandestine activity, of which not even the official chronicler was aware? Or that the chronicler himself was muzzled? The latter would seem to be the most likely explanation. For the knights were soon joined by two most illustrious noblemen, noblemen whose presence could not have gone unnoticed. According to Guillaume de Tyre, the Order of the Temple was established in 1118, originally numbered nine knights and admitted no new recruits for nine years. It is clearly on record, however, that the count of Anjou -father of Geoffrey Plantagenet joined the Order in 1120, only two years after its supposed foundation. And in 1124 the count of Champagne, one of the wealthiest lords in Europe, did likewise. If Guillaume de Tyre is correct, there should have been no new members until 1127; but by 1126 the Templars had in fact admitted four new members to their ranks.” Is Guillaume wrong, then, in saying that no new members were admitted for nine years? Or is he perhaps correct in that assertion, but wrong in the date he attributes to the Order’s foundation? If the count of Anjou became a Templar in 1120, and if the Order admitted no new members for nine years after its foundation, its foundation would date not from 1118, but at the latest, from 1111 or 1112. Indeed there is very persuasive evidence for this conclusion. In 1114 the count of Champagne was preparing for a journey to the Holy Land. Shortly before his departure, he received a letter from the bishop of Chartres. At one point, the bishop wrote, “We have heard that .. . before leaving for Jerusalem you made a vow to join “la mi lice du Christ”, that you wish to enrol in this evangelical soldiery. ‘3 “La mi lice du Christ’ was the name by which the Templars were originally known, and the name by which Saint Bernard alludes to them. In the context of the bishop’s letter the appellation cannot possibly refer to any other institution. It cannot mean, for example, that the count of Champagne simply decided to become a crusader, because the bishop goes on to speak of a vow of chastity which his decision has entailed. Such a vow would hardly have been required of an ordinary crusader. From the bishop of Chartres’s letter, then, it is clear that the Templars already existed, or had at least been planned, as early as 1114, four years before the date generally accepted; and that as early as 1114, the count of Champagne was already intending to join their ranks -which he eventually did a decade later. One historian who noted this letter drew the rather curious conclusion that the bishop cannot have meant what he said.” He could not have meant to refer to the Templars, the historian in question argues, because the Templars were not founded until four years later in 1118. Or perhaps the bishop did not know the year of Our Lord in which he was writing? But the bishop died in 1115. How, in 1114, could he ‘mistakenly’ refer to something which did not yet exist? There is only one possible, and very obvious, answer to the question that it is not the bishop who is wrong, but Guillaume de Tyre, as well as all subsequent historians who insist on regarding Guillaume as the unimpeachable voice of authority. In itself an earlier foundation date for the Order of the Temple need not necessarily be suspicious. But there are other circumstances and singular coincidences which decidedly are. At least three of the nine founding knights, including Hugues de Payen, seem to have come from adjacent regions, to have had family ties, to have known each other previously and to have been vassals of the same lord. This lord was the count of Champagne, to whom the bishop of Chartres addressed his letter in 1114 and who became a Templar in 1124, pledging obedience to his own vassal! In 1115 the count of Champagne donated the land on which Saint Bernard, patron of the Templars, built the famous Abbey of Clairvaux; and one of the nine founding knights, Andre de Montbard, was Saint Bernard’s uncle. In Troyes, moreover, the court of the count of Champagne, an influential school of Cabalistic and esoteric studies had flourished since 1070.”2 At the Council of Troyes in 1128 the Templars were officially incorporated.

For the next two centuries Troyes remained a strategic centre for the Order; and even today there is a wooded expanse adjacent to the city called the Foret du Temple. And it was from Troyes, court of the count of Champagne, that one of the earliest Grail romances issued quite possibly the earliest, composed by Chretien de Troyes. Amid this welter of data, we could begin to see a tenuous web of connections a pattern that seemed more than mere coincidence. If such a pattern did exist, it would certainly support our suspicion that the Templars were involved in some clandestine activity. Nevertheless, we could only speculate as to what that activity might have been. One basis for our speculation was the specific site of the knights’ domicile the wing of the royal palace, the Temple Mount, so inexplicably conferred upon them. In A.D. 70 the Temple which then stood there was sacked by Roman legions under Titus. Its treasure was plundered and brought to Rome, then plundered again and perhaps brought to the Pyrenees. But what if there were something else in the Temple as well something even more important than the treasure pillaged by the Romans? It is certainly possible that the Temple’s priests, confronted by an advancing phalanx of centurions, would have left to the looters the booty they expected to find. And if there were something else, it might well be concealed somewhere near by. Beneath the Temple, for instance. Among the Dead Sea Scrolls found at QumrAan, there is one now known as the “Copper Scroll’. This scroll, deciphered at Manchester University in 1955-6, makes explicit references to great quantities of bullion, sacred vessels, additional unspecified material and ‘treasure’ of an indeterminate kind. It cites twenty-four different hoards buried beneath the Temple itself .33 In the mid-twelfth century a pilgrim to the Holy Land, one Johann von Wurzburg, wrote of a visit to the so-called “Stables of Solomon’. These stables, situated directly beneath the Temple itself, are still visible. They were large enough, Johann reported, to hold two thousand horses; and it was in these stables that the Templars quartered their mounts.

According to at least one other historian, the Templars were using these stables for their horses as early as 1124, when they still supposedly numbered only nine. It would thus seem likely that the fledgling Order, almost immediately after its inception, undertook excavations beneath the Temple. Such excavations might well imply that the knights were actively looking for something. It might even imply that they were deliberately sent to the Holy Land, with the express commission of finding something. If this supposition is valid, it would explain a number of anomalies -their installation in the royal palace, for example, and the silence of the chronicler. But if they were sent to Palestine, who sent them? In 1104 the count of Champagne had met in conclave with certain high-ranking nobles, at least one of whom had just returned from Jerusalem.” Among those present at this conclave were representatives of certain families r. Brienne, Joinville and Chaumont who, we later discovered, figured significantly in our story. Also present was the liege lord of Andre de Montbard, Andre being one of the co-founders of the Temple and Saint Bernard’s uncle. Shortly after the conclave, the count of Champagne departed for the Holy Land himself and remained there for four years, returning in 1108.35 In 1114 he made a second journey to Palestine, intending to join the mi lice du Christ’, then changing his mind and returning to Europe a year later. On his return, he immediately donated a tract of land to the Cistercian Order, whose pre-eminent spokesman was Saint Bernard. On this tract of land Saint Bernard built the Abbey of Clairvaux, where he established his own residence and then consolidated the Cistercian Order. Prior to 1112 the Cistercians were dangerously close to bankruptcy. Then, under Saint Bernard’s guidance, they underwent a dazzling change of fortune. Within the next few years half a dozen abbeys were established. By 1153 there were more than three hundred, of which Saint Bernard himself personally founded sixty-nine. This extraordinary growth directly parallels that of the Order of the Temple, which was expanding in the same way during the same years. And, as we have said, one of the co founders of the Order of the Temple was Saint Bernard’s uncle, Andre de Montbard.

It is worth reviewing this complicated sequence of events. In 1104 the count of Champagne departed for the Holy Land after meeting with certain nobles, one of whom was connected with Andre de Montbard. In 1112 Andre de Montbard’s nephew, Saint Bernard, joined the Cistercian Order. In 1114 the count of Champagne departed on a second journey to the Holy Land, intending to join the Order of the Temple which was co-founded by his own vassal together with Andre de Montbard, and which, as the bishop of Chartres’s letter attests, was already in existence or in process of being established. In 1115 the count of Champagne returned to Europe, having been gone for less than a year, and donated land for the Abbey of Clairvaux whose abbot was Andre de Montbard’s nephew. In the years that followed both the Cistercians and the Templars both Saint Bernard’s order and Andre de Montbard’s became immensely wealthy and enjoyed phases of phenomenal growth. As we pondered this sequence of events, we became increasingly convinced that there was some pattern underlying and governing such an intricate web. It certainly did not appear to be random, nor wholly coincidental. On the contrary we seemed to be dealing with the vestiges of some complex and ambitious overall design, the full details of which had been lost to history. In order to reconstruct these details, we developed a tentative hypothesis a “scenario’, so to speak, which might accommodate the known facts. We supposed that something was discovered in the Holy Land, either by accident or design something of immense import, which aroused the interest of some of Europe’s most influential noblemen. We further supposed that this discovery involved, directly or indirectly, a great deal of potential wealth as well, perhaps, as something else, something that had to be kept secret, something which could only be divulged to a small number of high-ranking lords. Finally, we supposed that this discovery was reported and discussed at the conclave of 1104. Immediately thereafter the count of Champagne departed for the Holy Land himself, perhaps to verify personally what he had heard, perhaps to implement some course of action the foundation, for example, of what subsequently became the Order of the Temple. In 1114, if not before, the Templars were established with the count of Champagne playing some crucial role, perhaps acting as guiding spirit and sponsor. By 1115 money was already flowing back to Europe and into the coffers of the Cistercians, who, under Saint Bernard and from their new position of strength, endorsed and imparted credibility to the fledgling Order of the Temple. Under Bernard the Cistercians attained a spiritual ascendancy in Europe. Under Hugues de Payen and Andre de Montbard, the Templars attained a military and administrative ascendancy in the Holy Land which quickly spread back to Europe. Behind the growth of both orders loomed the shadowy presence of uncle and nephew, as well as the wealth, influence and patronage of the count of Champagne. These three individuals constitute a vital link. They are like markers breaking the surface of history, indicating the dim configurations of some elaborate, concealed design. If such a design actually existed, it cannot, of course, be ascribed to these three men alone. On the contrary, it must have entailed a great deal of co-operation from certain other people and a great deal of meticulous organisation. Organisation is perhaps the key word; for if our hypothesis was correct, it would presuppose a degree of organisation amounting to an order in itself a third and secret order behind the known and documented Orders of the Cistercians and the Temple. Evidence for the existence for such a third order was not long in arriving. In the meantime, we devoted our attention to the hypothetical “discovery’ in the Holy Land the speculative basis on which we had established our “scenario’. What might have been found there? To what might the Templars, along with Saint Bernard and the count of Champagne, have been privy? At the end of their history the Templars kept inviolate the secret of their treasure’s whereabouts and nature. Not even documents survived. If the treasure in question were simply financial bullion, for example it would not have been necessary to destroy or conceal all records, all rules, all archives. The implication is that the Templars had something else in their custody, something so precious that not even torture would wring an intimation of it from their lips. Wealth alone could not have prompted such absolute and unanimous secrecy.

Whatever it was had to do with other matters, like the Order’s attitude towards Jesus. On October 13th, 1307, all Templars throughout France were arrested by Philippe le Bel’s seneschals. But that statement is not quite true. The Templars of at least one preceptory slipped unscathed through the king’s net the preceptory of Bezu, adjacent to Rennes-leChateau. How and why did they escape? To answer that question, we were compelled to investigate the Order’s activities in the vicinity of Bezu. Those activities proved to have been fairly extensive. Indeed, there were some half dozen preceptories and other holdings in the area, which covered some twenty square miles. In 1153 a nobleman of the region a nobleman with Cathar sympathies became fourth Grand Master of the Order of the Temple. His name was Bertrand de Blanchefort, and his ancestral home was situated on a mountain peak a few miles away from both Bezu and Rennes-leChateau. Bertrand de Blanchefort, who presided over the Order from 1153 until 1170, was probably the most significant of all Templar Grand Masters. Before his regime the Order’s hierarchy and administrative structure were, at best, nebulous. It was Bertrand who transformed the Knights Templar into the superbly efficient, well-organised and magnificently disciplined hierarchical institution they then became. It was Bertrand who launched their involvement in high-level diplomacy and international politics. It was Bertrand who created for them a major sphere of interest in Europe, and particularly in France. And according to the evidence that survives, Bertrand’s mentor some historians even list him as the Grand Master immediately preceding Bertrand was Andre de Montbard. Within a few years of the Templars’ incorporation, Bertrand had not only joined their ranks, but also conferred on them lands in the environs of Rennes-leChateau and Bezu. And in 1156, under Bertrand’s regime as Grand Master, the Order is said to have imported to the area a contingent of German-speaking miners. These workers were supposedly subjected to a rigid, virtually military discipline. They were forbidden to fraternise in any way with the local population and were kept strictly segregated from the surrounding community.

A special judicial body, ‘la Judicature des Allemands’, was even created to deal with legal technicalities pertaining to them. And their alleged task was to work the gold mines on the slopes of the mountain at Blanchefort gold mines which had been utterly exhausted by the Romans nearly a thousand years before.-1s During the seventeenth century engineers were commissioned to investigate the mineralogical prospects of the area and draw up detailed reports. In the course of his report one of them, Cesar d’Arcons, discussed the ruins he had found, remains of the German workers’ activity. On the basis of his research, he declared that the German workers did not seem to have been engaged in mining.3’ In what, then, were they engaged? Cesar d’Arcons was unsure smelting perhaps, melting something down, constructing something out of metal, perhaps even excavating a subterranean crypt of some sort and creating a species of depository. Whatever the answer to this enigma, there had been a Templar presence in the vicinity of Rennes-leChateau since at least the mid-twelfth century. By 1285 there was a major preceptory a few miles from Bezu, at Campagnesur-Aude. Yet near the end of the thirteenth century, Pierre de Voisins, lord of Bezu and Rennes-leChateau, invited a separate detachment of Templars to the area, a special detachment from the Aragonese province of Roussillon.38 This fresh detachment established itself on the summit of the mountain of Bezu, erecting a lookout post and a chapel. Ostensibly, the Roussillon Templars had been invited to Bezu to maintain the security of the region and protect the pilgrim route which ran through the valley to Santiago de Compastela in Spain. But it is unclear why these extra knights should have been required. In the first place they cannot have been very numerous not enough to make a significant difference. In the second place there were already Templars in the neighbourhood. Finally, Pierre de Voisins had troops of his own, who, together with the Templars already there, could guarantee the safety of the environs. Why, then, did the Roussillon Templars come to Bezu? According to local tradition, they came to spy. And to exploit or bury or guard a treasure of some sort. Whatever their mysterious mission, they obviously enjoyed some kind of special immunity.

Alone of all Templars in France, they were left unmolested by Philippe le Bel’s seneschals on October 13th, 1307. On that fateful day the commander of the Templar contingent at Bezu was a Seigneur de Goth .39 And before taking the name of Pope Clement V, the archbishop of Bordeaux King Philippe’s vacillating pawn was Bertrand de Goth. Moreover, the new pontiff’s mother was Ida de Blanchefort, of the same family as Bertrand de Blanchefort. Was the pope then privy to some secret entrusted to the custody of his family a secret which remained in the Blanchefort family until the eighteenth century, when the Abbe Antoine Bigou, cure of Rennes-leChateau and confessor to Marie de Blanchefort, composed the parchments found by Sauniere? If this were the case, the pope might well have extended some sort of immunity to his relative commanding the Templars at Bezu. The history of the Templars near Rennes-leChateau was clearly as fraught with perplexing enigmas as the history of the Order in general. Indeed, there were a number of factors the role of Bertrand de Blanchefort, for example which seemed to constitute a discernible link between the general and the more localised enigmas. In the meantime, however, we were confronted with a daunting array of coincidences coincidences too numerous to be truly coincidental. Were we in fact dealing with a calculated pattern? If so, the obvious question was who devised it, for patterns of such intricacy do not devise themselves. All the evidence available to us pointed to meticulous planning and careful organisation so much so that increasingly we suspected there must be a specific group of individuals, perhaps comprising an order of some sort, working assiduously behind the scenes. We did not have to seek confirmation for the existence of such an order.

The confirmation thrust itself upon us. 4 Secret Documents Confirmation of a third order an order behind both the Templars and the Cistercians thrust itself upon us. At first, however, we could not take it seriously. It seemed to issue from too unreliable, too vague and nebulous a source. Until we could authenticate the veracity of this source, we could not believe its claims. In 1956 a series of hooks, articles, pamphlets and other documents relating to Berenger Sauniere and the enigma of Rennes-leChateau began to appear in France. This material has steadily proliferated, and is now voluminous. Indeed, it has come to constitute the basis for a veritable ‘industry’. And its sheer quantity, as well as the effort and resources involved in producing and disseminating it, implicitly attest to something of immense but as yet unexplained import. Not surprisingly, the affair has served to whet the appetites of numerous independent researchers like ourselves, whose works have added to the corpus of material available. The original material, however, seems to have issued from a single specific source. Someone clearly has a vested interest in ‘promoting’ Rennes-leChateau, in drawing public attention to the story, in generating publicity and further investigation. Whatever else it might be, this vested interest does not appear to be financial. On the contrary, it would appear to be more in the order of propaganda propaganda which establishes credibility for something. And whoever the individuals responsible for this propaganda may be, they have endeavoured to focus spotlights on certain issues while keeping themselves scrupulously in the shadows. Since 1956 a quantity of relevant material has been deliberately and systematically ‘leaked’, in a piecemeal fashion, fragment by fragment. Most of these fragments purport to issue, implicitly or explicitly, from some ‘privileged’ or “inside’ source. Most contain additional information, which supplements what was known before and thus contributes to the overall jigsaw. Neither the import nor the meaning of the overall jigsaw has yet been made clear, however. Instead, every new snippet of information has done more to intensify than to dispel the mystery. The result has been an ever-proliferating network of seductive allusions, provocative hints, suggestive cross-references and connections. In confronting the welter of data now available, the reader may well feel he is being toyed with, or being ingeniously and skilfully led from conclusion to conclusion by successive carrots dangled before his nose. And underlying it all is the constant, pervasive intimation of a secret a secret of monumental and explosive proportions. The material disseminated since 1956 has taken a number of forms. Some of it has appeared in popular, even best-selling books, more or less sensational, more or less cryptically teasing. Thus, for example, Gerard de Sede has produced a sequence of works on such apparently divergent topics as the Cathars, the Templars, the Merovingian dynasty, the Rose-Croix, Sauniere and Rennes-leChateau. In these works, M. de Sede is often arch, coy, deliberately mystifying and coquettishly evasive. His tone implies constantly that he knows more than he is saying perhaps a device for concealing that he does not know as much as he pretends. But his books contain enough verifiable details to forge a link between their respective themes. Whatever else one may think of M. de Sede, he effectively establishes that the diverse subjects to which he addresses himself somehow overlap and are interconnected. On the other hand, we could not but suspect that M. de Sede’s work drew heavily on information provided by an informant and indeed, M. de Sede more or less acknowledges as much himself. Quite by accident, we learned who this informant was. In 1971, when we embarked on our first BBC film on Rennes-leChateau, we wrote to M. de Sede’s Paris publisher for certain visual material. The photographs we requested were accordingly posted to us. Each of them, on the back, was stamped “Plantard’.

At that time the name meant little enough to us. But the appendix to one of M. de Sede’s books consisted of an interview with one Pierre Plantard. And we subsequently obtained evidence that Pierre Plantard had been involved with certain of M. de Sede’s works. Eventually Pierre Plantard began to emerge as one of the dominant figures in our investigation. The information disseminated since 1956 has not always been contained in as popular and accessible a form as M. de Sede’s. Some of it has appeared in weighty, daunting, even pedantic tomes, diametrically opposed to M. de Sede’s journalistic approach. One such work was produced by Rene Descadeillas, former Director of the Municipal Library of Carcassonne. M. Descadeillas’s book is strenuously anti-sensational. Devoted to the history of Rennes-leChateau and its environs, it contains a plethora of social and economic minutiae for example, the births, deaths, marriages” finances, taxes and public works between the years 1730 and 1820.” On the whole, it could not possibly differ more from the mass-market books of M. de Sede which M. Descadeillas elsewhere subjects to scathing criticism.2 In addition to published books, including some which have been published privately, there have been a number of articles in newspapers and magazines. There have been interviews with various individuals claiming to be conversant with one or another facet of the mystery. But the most interesting rind important information has not, for the most part, appeared in book form. Most of it has surfaced elsewhere in documents and pamphlets not intended for general circulation. Many of these documents and pamphlets have been deposited, in limited, privately printed editions, at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. They seem to have been produced very cheaply. Some, in fact, are mere typewritten pages, photo offset and reproduced on an office duplicator. Even more than the marketed works, this body of ephemera seems to have issued from the same source. By means of cryptic asides and footnotes pertaining to Sauniere, Rennes-leChateau, Poussin, the Merovingian dynasty and other themes, each piece of it complements, enlarges on and confirms the others. In most cases the ephemera is of uncertain authorship, appearing under a variety of transparent, even ‘cute’ pseudonyms Madeleine Blancassal, for example, Nicolas Beaucean, Jean Delaude and Antoine 1”Ermite.

”Madeleine’, of course, refers to Marie-Madeleine, the Magdalene, to whom the church at Rennes-leChateau is dedicated and to whom Sauniere consecrated his tower, the Tour Magdala. “Blancassal’ is formed from the names of two small rivers that converge near the village of Rennes-les-Bains the Blanque and the Sals. “Beaucean’ is a variation of “Beauseant’, the official battle-cry and battle-standard of the Knights Templar. “Jean Delaude’ is “Jean de 1”Aude’ or “John of the Aude’, the department in which Rennes-leChateau is situated. And “Antoine 1”Ermite’ is Saint Anthony the Hermit, whose statue adorns the church at Rennes-leChateau and whose feast day is January 17th -the date on Marie de Blanchefort’s tombstone and the date on which Sauniere suffered his fatal stroke. The work ascribed to Madeleine Blancassal is entitled Les Descendants merovingiens et 1’enigme du Razes wisigoth (“The Merovingian Descendants and the Enigma of the Visigoth Razes’) Razes being the old name for Sauniere’s region. According to its title page, this work was originally published in German and translated into French by Walter Celse-Nazaire another pseudonym compounded from Saints Celse and Nazaire, to whom the church at Rennes-les-Bains is dedicated. And according to the title page, the publisher of the work was the Grande Loge Alpina, the supreme Masonic lodge of Switzerland -the Swiss equivalent of Grand Lodge in Britain or Grand Orient in France. There is no indication as to why a modern Masonic lodge should display such interest in the mystery surrounding an obscure nineteenth-century French priest and the history of his parish a millennium and a half ago. One of our colleagues and an independent researcher both questioned Alpina officials. They disclaimed all knowledge not only of the work’s publication, but also of its existence. Yet an independent researcher claims personally to have seen the work on the shelves of Alpina’s library.3 And subsequently we discovered that the Alpina imprint appeared on two other pamphlets as well. Of all the privately published documents deposited in the Bibliotheque Nationale, the most important is a compilation of papers entitled collectively Dossiers secrets (“Secret Dossiers’). Catalogued under numberlm’ 249, this compilation is now on microfiche. Until recently, however, it comprised a thin, nondescript volume, a species of folder with stiff covers which contained a loose assemblage of ostensibly unrelated items news clippings, letters pasted to backing-sheets, pamphlets, numerous genealogical trees and the odd printed page apparently extracted from the body of some other work. Periodically some of the individual pages would be removed. At different times other pages would be freshly inserted. On certain pages additions and corrections would sometimes be made in a minuscule longhand. At a later date, these pages would be replaced by new ones, printed and incorporating all previous emendations. The bulk of the Dossiers, which consists of genealogical trees, is ascribed to one Henri Lobineau, whose name appears on the title page. Two additional items in the folder declare that Henri Lobineau is yet another pseudonym derived perhaps from a street, the Rue Lobineau, which runs outside Saint Sulpice in Paris and that the genealogies are actually the work of a man named Leo Schidlof, an Austrian historian and antiquarian who purportedly lived in Switzerland and died in 1966. On the basis of this information we undertook to learn what we could about Leo Schidlof. In 1978 we managed to locate Leo Schidlof’s daughter, who was living in England. Her father, she said, was indeed Austrian. He was not a genealogist, historian or antiquarian, however, but an expert and dealer in miniatures, who had written two works on the subject. In 1948 he had settled in London, where he lived until his death in Vienna in 1966 the year and place specified in the Dossiers secrets. Miss Schidlof vehemently maintained that her father had never had any interest in genealogies, the Merovingian dynasty, or mysterious goings-on in the south of France. And yet, she continued, certain people obviously believed he had. During the 1960s, for example, he had received numerous letters and telephone calls from unidentified individuals in both Europe and the United States, who wished to meet with him and discuss matters of which he had no knowledge whatever. On his death in 1966 there was another barrage of messages, most of them inquiring about his papers. Whatever the affair in which Miss Schidlof’s father had become unwittingly embroiled, it seemed to have struck a sensitive chord with the American government. In 1946 -a decade before the Dossiers secrets are said to have been compiled Leo Schidlof applied for a visa to enter the United States. The application was refused, on grounds of suspected espionage or some other form of clandestine activity. Eventually the matter seems to have been sorted out, the visa issued and Leo Schidlof was admitted to the States. It may all have been a typical bureaucratic mix-up. But Miss Schidlof seemed to suspect that it was somehow connected with the arcane preoccupations so perplexingly ascribed to her father. Miss Schidlof’s story gave us pause. The refusal of an American visa might well have been more than coincidental, for there were, among the papers in the Dossiers secrets, references that linked the name Leo Schidlof with some sort of international espionage. In the meantime, however, a new pamphlet had appeared in Paris which, during the months that followed, was confirmed by other sources. According to this pamphlet the elusive Henri Lobineau was not Leo Schidlof after all, but a French aristocrat of distinguished lineage, Comte Henri de Lenoncourt. The question of Lobineau’s real identity was not the only enigma associated with the Dossiers secrets. There was also an item which referred to “Leo Schidlof’s leather briefcase’. This briefcase supposedly contained a number of secret papers relating to Rennes-leChateau between 1600 and 1800. Shortly after Schidlof’s death, the briefcase was said to have passed into the hands of a courier, a certain Fakhar ul Islam who, in February 1967, was to rendezvous in East Germany with an ‘agent delegated by Geneva’ and entrust it to him. Before the’ transaction could be effected, however, Fakhar ul Islam was reportedly expelled from East Germany and returned to Paris “to await further orders’. On February 20th, 1967, his body was found on the railway tracks at Melun, having been hurled from the Paris-Geneva express. The briefcase had supposedly vanished. We set out to check this lurid story as far as we could. A series of articles in French newspapers of February 21st did confirm most of it.” A decapitated body had indeed been found on the tracks at Melun. It was identified as that of a young Pakistani named Fakhar ul Islam. For reasons that remained obscure, the dead man had been expelled from East Germany and was travelling from Paris to Geneva engaged, it appeared, in some form of espionage. According to the newspaper reports, the authorities suspected foul play, and the affair was being investigated by the DST (Directory of Territorial Surveillance, or CounterEspionage). On the other hand, the newspapers made no mention of Leo Schidlof, a leather briefcase or anything else that might connect the occurrence with the mystery of RennesleChateau. As a result, we found ourselves confronted with a number of questions. On the one hand, it was possible that Fakhar ul Islam’s death was linked with Rennes-leChateau that, the item in the Dossiers secrets in fact drew upon “inside information’ inaccessible to the newspapers. On the other hand the item in the Dossiers secrets might have been deliberate and spurious mystification. One need only find any unexplained or suspicious death and ascribe it, after the fact, to one’s own hobby-horse. But if this were indeed the case, what was the purpose of the exercise? Why should someone deliberately try to create an atmosphere of sinister intrigue around Rennes-leChateau? What might be gained by the creation of such an atmosphere? And who might gain from it? These questions perplexed us all the more because Fakhar ul Islam’s death was not, apparently, an isolated occurrence. Less than a month later another privately printed work was deposited in the Bibliotheque Nationale. It was called Le Serpent rouge (“The Red Serpent’) and dated, symbolically and significantly enough, January 17th. Its title page ascribed it to three authors Pierre Feugere, Louis Saint-Maxent and Gaston de Koker. Le Serpent rouge is a singular work. It contains one Merovingian genealogy and two maps of France in Merovingian times, along with a cursory commentary. It also contains a ground plan of Saint Sulpice in Paris, which delineates the chapels of the church’s various saints. But the bulk of the text consists of thirteen short prose poems of impressive literary quality many of them reminiscent of the work of and each corresponds to a sign of the Zodiac a zodiac of thirteen signs, with the thirteenth, Ophiuchus or the Serpent Holder, inserted between Scorpio and Sagittarius. Narrated in the first person, the thirteen prose poems are a type of symbolic: or allegorical pilgrimage, commencing with Aquarius and ending with Capricorn which, as the text explicitly states, presides over January 17th. In the otherwise cryptic text there are familiar references -to the Blanchefort family, to the decorations in the church at Rennes-leChateau, to some of Sauniere’s inscriptions there, to Poussin and the painting of “Les Bergers d’Arcadie’, to the motto on the tomb, “Et in Arcadia Ego’. At one point, there is mention of a red snake, “cited in the parchments’, uncoiling across the centuries an explicit allusion, it would seem, to a bloodline or a lineage. And for the astrological sign of Leo, there is an enigmatic paragraph worth quoting in its entirety: From she whom I desire to liberate, there wafts towards me the fragrance of the perfume which impregnates the Sepulchre. Formerly, some named her: Isis, queen of all sources benevolent. COME UNTO ME ALL YE WHO SUFFER AND ARE AFFLICTED, AND I SHALL GIVE YE REST. To others, she is MAGDALENE, of the celebrated vase filled with healing balm. The initiated know her true name: NOTRE DAME DES CROSS.” The implications of this paragraph are extremely interesting. Isis, of course, is the Egyptian Mother Goddess, patroness of mysteries the “White Queen’ in her benevolent aspects, the “Black Queen’ in her malevolent ones. Numerous writers, on mythology, anthropology, psychology, theology, have traced the cult of the Mother Goddess from pagan times to the Christian epoch. And according to these writers she is said to have survived under Christianity in the guise of the Virgin Mary the “Queen of Heaven’, as Saint Bernard called her, a designation applied in the Old Testament to the Mother Goddess Astarte, the Phoenician equivalent of Isis. But according to the text in Le Serpent rouge, the Mother Goddess of Christianity would not appear to be the Virgin.

On the contrary, she would appear to be the Magdalene to whom the church at Rennes-leChateau is dedicated and to whom Sauniere consecrated his tower. Moreover, the text would seem to imply that “Notre Dame’ does not apply to the Virgin either. That resonant title conferred on all the great cathedrals of France would also seem to refer to the Magdalene. But why should the Magdalene be revered as “Our Lady’ and, still more, as a Mother Goddess? Maternity is the last thing generally associated with the Magdalene. In popular Christian tradition she is a prostitute who finds redemption by apprenticing herself to Jesus. And she figures most noticeably in the Fourth Gospel, where she is the first person to behold Jesus after the Resurrection. In consequence she is extolled as a saint, especially in France where, according to medieval legends, she is said to have brought the Holy Grail. And indeed the ‘vase filled with healing balm’ might well be intended to suggest the Grail. But to enshrine the Magdalene in the place usually reserved for the Virgin would seem, at very least, to be heretical. Whatever their point, the authors of Le Serpent rouge -or, rather, the alleged authors met with a fate as gruesome as that of Fakhar ul Islam. On March 6th, 1967, Louis Saint-Maxent and Gaston de Koker were found hanged. And the following day, March 7th, Pierre Feugere was found hanged as well. One might immediately assume, of course, that these deaths were in some way connected with the composition and public release of Le Serpent rouge. As in the case of Fakhar ul Islam, however, we could not discount an alternative explanation. If one wished to engender an aura of sinister mystery, it would be easy enough to do. One need only comb the newspapers until one found a suspicious death or, in this instance, three suspicious deaths. After the fact, one might then append the names of the deceased to a pamphlet of one’s own concoction and deposit that pamphlet in the Bibliotheque Nationale with an earlier date (January 17th) on the title page. It would be virtually impossible to expose such a hoax, which would certainly produce the desired intimation of foul play.

But why perpetrate such a hoax at all? Why should someone want to invoke an aura of violence, murder and intrigue? Such a ploy would hardly deter investigators. On the contrary, it would only further attract them. If, on the other hand, we were not dealing with a hoax, there were still a number of baffling questions. Were we to believe, for example, that the three hanged men were suicides or victims of murder? Suicide, in the circumstances, would seem to make little sense And murder would not seem to make much more. One could understand three people being dispatched lest they divulge certain explosive information. But in this case the information had already been divulged, already deposited in the Bibliotheque Nationale. Could the murders if that was what they were have been a form of punishment, of retribution? Or perhaps a means of precluding any subsequent indiscretions? Neither of these explanations is satisfactory. If one is angered by the disclosure of certain information, or if one wishes to forestall additional disclosures, one does not attract attention to the matter by committing a trio of lurid and sensational murders unless one is reasonably confident that there will be no very assiduous inquiry. Our own adventures in the course of our investigation were mercifully less dramatic, but equally mystifying. In our research, for example, we had encountered repeated references to a work by one Antoine 1”Ermite entitled Un Tresor merovingien a Rennes-leChateau (“A Merovingian Treasure at Rennes-leChateau’). We endeavoured to locate this work and quickly found it listed in the Bibliotheque Nationale catalogue; but it proved inordinately difficult to obtain. Every day, for a week, we went to the library and filled out the requisite fiche requesting the work. On each occasion the fiche was returned marked “communique’ indicating that the work was being used by someone else. In itself this was not necessarily unusual. After a fortnight, however, it began to become so and exasperating as well, for we could not remain in Paris much longer. We sought the assistance of a librarian. He told us the book would be ‘communique’ for three months -an extremely unusual situation and that we could not order it in advance of its return. In England not long afterwards a friend of ours announced that she was going to Paris for a holiday. We accordingly asked her to try to obtain the elusive work of Antoine 1”Ermite and at least make a note of what it contained. At the Bibliotheque Nationale, she requested the book. Her fiche was not even returned. The next day she tried again, and with the same result. When we were next in Paris, some four months later, we made another attempt. Our fiche was again returned marked “communique’. At this point, we began to feel the game had been somewhat overplayed and began to play one of our own. We made our way down the catalogue room, adjacent to the ‘stacks’ which are, of course, inaccessible to the public. Finding an elderly and kindly looking library assistant, we assumed the role of bumbling English tourists with Neanderthal command of French. Asking his help, we explained that we were seeking a particular work but were unable to obtain it, no doubt because of our imperfect understanding of the library’s procedures. The genial old gentleman agreed to help. We gave him the work’s catalogue number and he disappeared into the “stacks’. When he emerged, he apologised, saying there was nothing he could do the book had been stolen. What was more, he added, a compatriot of ours was apparently responsible for the theft an Englishwoman. After some badgering, he consented to give us her name. It was that of our friend! On returning to England again, we sought the assistance of the library service in London, and they agreed to look into the bizarre affair. On our behalf, the National Central Library wrote to the Bibliotheque Nationale requesting an explanation for what appeared to be deliberate obstruction of legitimate research. No explanation was forthcoming. Shortly thereafter, however, a Xerox copy of Antoine 1”Ermite’s work was at last dispatched to us -along with emphatic instructions that it be returned immediately. This in itself was extremely singular, for libraries do not generally request return of Xerox copies. Such copies are usually deemed mere waste paper and disposed of accordingly. The work, when it was finally in our hands, proved distinctly disappointing hardly worth the complicated business of obtaining; it. Like Madeleine Blancassal’s work, it bore the imprint of the Swiss Grande Loge Alpina. But it said nothing in any way new.

Very briefly, it recapitulated the history of the Comte of Razes, of RennesleChateau and Berenger Sauniere. In short, it rehashed all the details with which we had long been familiar. There seemed to be no imaginable reason why anyone should have been using it, and keeping it “communique’, for a solid week. Nor did there seem any imaginable reason for withholding it from us. But most puzzling of all, the work itself was not original. With the exception of a few words altered here and there, it was a verbatim text, reset and reprinted, of a chapter in a popular paperback a facile best-seller, available at news-stands for a few francs, on lost treasures throughout the world. Either Antoine 1”Ermite had shamelessly plagiarised the published book, or the published book had plagiarised Antoine 1”Ermite. Such occurrences are typical of the mystification that has attended the material which, since 1956, has been appearing fragment by fragment in France. Other researchers have encountered similar enigmas. Ostensibly plausible names have proved to be pseudonyms. Addresses, including addresses of publishing houses and organisations, have proved not to exist. References have been cited to books which no one, to our knowledge, has ever seen. Documents have disappeared, been altered, or inexplicably mis catalogued in the Bibilotheque Nationale. At times one is tempted to suspect a practical joke. If so, however, it is a practical joke on an enormous scale, involving an impressive array of resources financial and otherwise. And whoever might be perpetrating such a joke would seem to be taking it very seriously indeed. In the meantime new material has continued to appear, with the familiar themes recurring like leitmotifs -Sauni6re, Rennes-leChateau, Poussin, “Les Bergers d’Arcadie’, the Knights Templar, Dagobert II and the Merovingian dynasty. Allusions to viticulture the grafting of vines figure prominently, presumably in some allegorical sense. At the same time, more and more information has been added. The identification of Henri Lobineau as the count of Lenoncourt is one example. Another is an increasing but unexplained insistence on the significance of the Magdalene. And two other locations have been stressed repeatedly, assuming a status now apparently commensurate with Rennes-leChateau.

One of these is Gisors, a fortress in Normandy which was of vital strategic and political importance at the peak of the Crusades. The other is Stenay, once called Satanicum, on the fringe of the Ardennes the old capital of the Merovingian dynasty, near which Dagobert II was assassinated in 679. The corpus of material now available cannot be adequately reviewed or discussed in these pages. It is too dense, too confusing, too disconnected, most of all too copious. But from this ever-proliferating welter of information, certain key points emerge which constitute a foundation for further research. They are presented as indisputable historical fact, and can be summarised as follows: 1) There was a secret order behind the Knights Templar, which created the Templars as its military and administrative arm. This order, which has functioned under a variety of names, is most frequently known as the Prieure de Sion (“Priory of Sion’). 2) The Prieure de Sion has been directed by a sequence of Grand Masters whose names are among the most illustrious in Western history and culture. 3) Although the Knights Templar were destroyed and dissolved between 1307 and 1314, the Prieure de Sion remained unscathed. Although itself periodically torn by internecine and factional strife, it has continued to function through the centuries. Acting in the shadows, behind the scenes, it has orchestrated certain of the critical events in Western history. 4) The Prieure de Sion exists today and is still operative. It is influential and plays a role in high-level international affairs, as well as in the domestic affairs of certain European countries. To some significant extent it is responsible for the body of information disseminated since 1956. 5) The avowed and declared objective of the Prieure de Sion is the restoration of the Merovingian dynasty and bloodline to the throne not only of France, but to the thrones of other European nations as well. 6) The restoration of the Merovingian dynasty is sanctioned and justifiable, both legally and morally.

Although deposed in the eighth century, the Merovingian bloodline did not become extinct. On the contrary it perpetuated itself in a direct line from Dagobert II and his son, Sigisbert IV. By dint of dynastic alliances and intermarriages, this line came to include Godfroi de Bouillon, who captured Jerusalem in 1099, and various other noble and royal families, past and present Blanchefort, Gisors, Saint Clair (Sinclair in England), Montesquieu, Montpezat, Poher, Luisignan, Plantard and Habsburg-Lorraine. At present, the Merovingian bloodline enjoys a legitimate claim to its rightful heritage. Here, in the so-called Prieure de Sion, was a possible explanation for the reference to “Sion’ in the parchments found by Berenger Sauniere. Here, too, was an explanation for the curious signature, “P.S.” which appeared on one of those parchments, and on the tombstone of Marie de Blanchefort. Nevertheless, we were extremely sceptical, like most people, about ‘conspiracy theories of history’; and most of the above assertions struck us as irrelevant, improbable and/or absurd. But the fact remained that certain people were promulgating them, and doing so quite seriously; quite seriously and, there was reason to believe, from positions of considerable power. And whatever the truth of the assertions, they were clearly connected in some way with the mystery surrounding Sauniere and Rennes-le Chateau. We, therefore, embarked on a systematic examination of what we had begun to call, ironically, the “Prieure documents’, and of the assertions they contained. We endeavoured to subject these assertions to careful critical scrutiny and determine whether they could be in any way substantiated. We did so with a cynical, almost derisory scepticism, fully convinced the outlandish claims would wither under even cursory investigation. Although we could not know it at the time, we were to be greatly surprised.
– 98

Project SkyWater | Cloud Seeding | Weather Modification


Cloud Seeding


Project Skywater

Jedediah S. Rogers Historic Reclamation Projects Bureau of Reclamation 2009 Reformatted, reedited, reprinted by Andrew H. Gahan July 2013

CLICK HERE if you would like to Download the pdf Project_Skywater_D1[1].pdf  to your computer.

Table of Contents Table of Table of Contents Contents

Project Skywater …………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

The History of Rainmaking ……………………………………………………………………………………2

Postwar Science and Legislation …………………………………………………………………………….8

The Politics of Project Skywater……………………………………………………………………………12

Technology, Testing, and Implementation ……………………………………………………………..19

Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

Government Documents ………………………………………………………………………………………32

Secondary Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Other Sources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..33


Project Skywater
In 1961 Congress allocated funding for the creation of a weather modification
program headed by the Bureau of Reclamation. Project Skywater came fifteen years after
Irving Langmuir, Vincent Schaefer, and Bernard Vonnegut of the General Electric
Laboratories in Schenectady, New York, successfully demonstrated that “seeding” clouds
with nucleating agents like dry ice (carbon dioxide) and silver iodide produced rain.
Skywater aimed to demonstrably prove that there was a practical basis for weather
modification, as it was popularly called, in terms of cost-benefit and environmental
sensibility. Nevertheless, the task was both daunting and singular. The science behind
rainmaking was embryonic and not thoroughly tested against the complex variables that
govern the weather. Moreover, never before had Reclamation embarked on such a
project: a program of taking water management to the skies, of extensive coordination
with government and non-government entities typically not involved in surface or ground
water issues, of collecting data over a large area, and of understanding a system as large,
unwieldy, and unpredictable as the weather.
In 1964 a report of the National Academy of Sciences produced by a panel of
experts from the scientific community and government agencies gave a grim diagnosis of
the changing of weather. The report critiqued “present efforts which emphasize the a
posteriori evaluation of largely uncontrolled experiments,” and instead proposed “patient
investigation of atmospheric processes coupled with exploration of the technological
applications.” It predicted that even after a very costly and lengthy period of study and
testing, not everything could possibly be known about the atmosphere. The program
required “integrated large-scale studies” on
the structure and dynamics of convective clouds, the physics of precipitation, the initiation of convection in the boundary layer, the effects of cirrus and dust layers on the radiation balance, the dynamics of severe storms, such as thunder- and hailstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, and the role of convection therein.1
Reclamation’s Project Skywater was a cog in a larger wheel to address the need
for an integrated program on artificial changes in the atmosphere. Reclamation
concentrated studies and testing in the western states, principally in the upper Colorado
River basin and along the Sierra Nevada in California, for the purposes of managing and
mining water resources, as well as for national defense, public health, and technological
development.2 Never well funded, the program had a decidedly mixed cost-benefit,
environmental, and operational record that never convincingly supported a sound basis
for a national, extensively funded weather modification program.
The History of Rainmaking If the scientific basis behind rainmaking is a modern phenomenon, people, for
ages, have attempted to manipulate the weather. Primitive societies had rainmakers
employing a number of techniques to produce rain, from hanging frogs on trees to
blowing water from special pipes to other forms of homegrownweather magic. In some
American Indian societies native peoples offered human sacrifice in return for rain; in
China people used huge paper dragons to induce rain; in Italy rainmakers stripped statues
of wings or banished the statues of saints until rain appeared. Dr. David Livingstone
1 National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Scientific Problems of Weather Modification; A Report of the Panel on Weather and Climate Modification, Publication 1236 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1964), 1-4. 2 United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Project Skywater: An Introduction to Rivers in the Sky, December 1973, 1; the stated purpose of the program was “to explore, develop and determine the feasibility of applying the technology of weather modification to meet the Nation’s increasing demand for clean water.”
reported that, in Africa, natives burned charcoal and other local materials to make rain.
Supplication to gods for rain has been with humans for centuries.
In time religious explanations for rain gave way to scientific or pseudo-scientific
observations. Sometimes the modern notions built on earlier ones. The idea that firing
artillery into the sky would induce rain, for instance, stemmed from the correlation noted
since antiquity that rain followed the battle. Rain came not because the gods found the
carnage offensive or because the blood, sweat, and tears from the slain produced the
condensation for rain. Rather, some believed that the sound of the cannon induced the
rain much as the crack of lightning produced the same result.
A common method of rainmaking was burning, but not until the nineteenth
century did weather modification experiments take on the air of scientific authority.
James Pollard Espy, considered by some to be the father of the U.S. Weather Bureau,
devised a theory of explaining how clouds formed that put him well ahead of his time.
Noting that hot air expanded as it rose, resulting in a drop in temperature and
condensation of air vapor, he predicted that man could generate a cloud if he created hot
air rising in a column. There he gave the scientific basis for the idea that burning/fire
created rain—a phenomenon observed since antiquity. Espy proposed burning large
areas of land—say, 40 acres oftimber every twentymiles in a continuous line north to
south spanning the length of the country—and assured
that the farmers and mariners would always know in advance when the rains would commence, or nearly so, and when theywould terminate; that all epidemic diseases originating from floods and droughts, would cease; that the proceeds of agriculture would be greatly increased, and the health and happiness of the citizens much promoted.”
No such schemes were carried out. After one petition came before the U.S. Senate, John
J. Crittenden of Kentucky urged his colleagues not to give Espy power to cause rain
because “he mayalso possess the power of withholding it, and in his pleasure, instead of
giving us a navigable river, may present us with rocks and shoals and sandbars.” It was
probably a good thing that Congress never funded Espy’s schemes since burning requires
a lot of fuel and energy for yielding, arguably, a scant inch of rain.3
Espy conducted and proposed his methods in the eastern states, where natural
precipitation could support agricultureand water shortage was not acute. West of the
hundredth meridian, however, water manipulation became a matter of survival. The
usual method was to manipulate the water once it reached the ground. The Hohokam
civilization, in central Arizona, is a remarkable yet cautionary tale of the creation of a
complex hydraulic irrigation society in the Southwest that flourished until water scarcity
led,as archeologists believe,to a complete collapse in the fifteenth century.
The first Euro-Americans to traverse the plains region and the far West mostly
perceived the land as wind-swept and arid, largely unfit for settlement. In the plains
region the lack of water and wood made the plains unfit for agriculture and even modest
sized populations. Although the explorer and map maker John C. Frémont suggested that
cattle and farmers could subsist on the native grasses and soil on the plains, overland
immigrants to the West famously passed over the plains with hardly a thought of
lingering. Yet old notions of what the land could support shifted as the East’s
populations moved westward following the call of boosters and agricultural enthusiasts
claiming that “rain followed the plow”—meaning that planting trees and crops altered
3 Clark C. Spence, The Rainmakers: American “Pluviculture” to World War II (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 9-11, 15.
climate conditions creating more moisture. Congress even encoded in law the notion that
man could alter the western environment by passing the Timber Culture Act in 1873,
which gave ranchers an extra 160 acres of land if theyagreed to plant trees on at least 40
acres of it. Indeed, some believed that empirical evidence proved the theory right, by the
fact that the late 1870s and early 1880s were wet years and hardly typical climatic
behavior on the plains. As climate conditions returned to normal, water was in short
supply, and farmers adapted to that reality by dry farming or using drought-resistant
crops or pumping irrigation water fromshallowunderground aquifers.4
The idea to devise schemes to draw water from the sky stemmed from the age-old
need to locate a reliable water supply. The alluring profit of entering into the rainmaking
business brought people of varying background and knowledge to the task. Their
methods ran the gamut from burning and releasing chemicals into the atmosphere to
concussion and electricity. A common method was to releasedirt, sulphuric acid, or salt
thatlatched onto condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. One idea on the plains was to
build a mammoth artificial ramp a mile high and miles across to lift air as it naturally
rises horizontally across the mountains. The problem was that the rain produced by the
artificial mount would leave other areas high and dry, to say nothing of the material and
money needed to build such a ramp. A number of other schemes ran head-on into
technical and financial improbabilities, such as ideas to use airplanes simultaneously to
blow air from their propellers into the atmosphere, or to warm air on the ground which
would then rise.
4 Howard R. Lamar, ed., The New Encyclopedia of the American West (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1998), 447-8, 1114-5.
Some rainmakers gained special notoriety. During the drought years of the late
nineteenth century Frank Melbourne and Clayton B. Jewell made good money
convincingfarmers that their chemicals induced rain. Another avid proponent of
rainmaking was Robert St. George Dyrenforth of the Department of Agriculture. No one
was more infamous than Charles M. Hatfield, so successful at making rain that according
to one historian “he was accused of washing out dams and credited with saving millions
of dollars worth of crops and defying not only the U.S. Weather Bureau but the elements
as well.”5 Even after supposedly inducing 20 inches of rain in San Diego in 1916 and
escaping liability for resulting loss of life and property, Hatfield continued to collect
upwards of $4,000 for one inch of rain.6
Probably some sincerely believed they could call upon the elements at will even
as they recognized the betting odds. The stories are rife with naivety, gullibility,
deception, faith in progress and science. It might appear perplexing in hindsight why
people would pay well for services of questionable validity, but water users facing
shortage and a failed crop might have seen rainmaking as a legitimate risk to take.
Moreover, although no one could prove the validity of rainmaking, neither could they
disprove it. Who was to say that sulfuric acid or other particulate did not bring down the
rain? How could a farmer desperate for water dismiss as fraud or luck the accurate
predictions of a rainmaker?
A reason these questions could not be answered, people believed, was because no
one had systematically studied the working of weather systems. Centuries of rainmakers
wielding magic, religion, and pseudo-science to modify the elements had relatively little

5 Spence, Rainmakers, 80. 6 D. S. Halacy, Jr., The Weather Changers (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1968), 55-78.
to show for these efforts. Unfamiliar with weather systems and how they worked, most
rainmakers employed a healthy dose of guesswork, quackery, and fraud in their work.
Still, there was not a clear or discernable break between what may be called amateur and
professional rainmakers. Even as scientists gathered more data for understanding and
predicting the weather, the modern science of rainmaking, according to one historian,
owed a great deal to earlier inquiries into weather systems.7
In 1930 three European scientists pushed the experiments and science further than
ever before. August Veraart of Holland triumphantly proclaimed that the dry ice he
dispersed into the clouds caused it to rain, but his voice was so loud and his claims so
extravagant that he was dismissed altogether. At the same time a duo from Scandinavia
and Germany experimented with freezing vapor on ice crystals in clouds and claimed that
“at comparatively slight expense, it will, in time, be possible to bring about rain
None of these men garnered much credit for the first successful cloud seeding.
That honor goes to Irving Langmuir, Vincent Schaefer, and Bernard Vonnegut of the
General Electric Laboratories in Schenectady, New York, in 1946. Langmuir’s work on
cloud seeding is a footnote in a long and storied career as a chemist and inventor. As a
researcher, associate director, and consultant at General Electric,he advanced many
fields and earned top honors for his work, including the Nobel Prize in 1932. Schaefer
was Langmuir’s assistant who gained recognition for having serendipitously discovered
how to form ice crystals in his home ice box—dry ice—which is solid carbon dioxide. In
November 1946 he confirmed, in a four-mile long stratus cloud,—what he tested in his
ice box—that ice crystals formed when clouds were cooled. Not long thereafter, the 7 Halacy, Weather Changers, 79.
younger Vonnegut found that silver iodide could be used to seed clouds to produce rain
and snow.8
Postwar Science and Legislation According to Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall, in a speech delivered before
the American Meteorological Society, the Bureau of Reclamation took interest in weather
modification in 1947, a year after Schaefer’s seeding demonstrations.9 It was not entirely
surprising that Reclamation would jump into a new field of water management—not after
several decades of broadening water operations to power generation, urban water supply,
and recreation. After initial setbacks, the Great Depression and war era had remade
Reclamation, perhaps most of all by planting a sense of supreme confidence in
engineering and technology and human solutions. If Reclamation could construct the
world’s largest dams and power western cities with electricity, why could it not control
the weather?
Even still, Reclamation did not immediately take part in the flurry of weather
modification schemes in the wake of General Electric’s cloud seeding tests. Rather,
Langmuir coordinated with the Army Signal Corps, the Air Force, and the Navy to
initiate Project Cirrus. The cloud seeding project reportedly produced numerous
successful rainmaking demonstrations and gathered statistical information that other
government and private entities later used. During the same period, a disparate
community of enterprising meteorologists and privately funded individuals constituted
what one critic called “a flock of quick-buck artists who traveled around the countryside
8 Halacy, Weather Changers, 80, 87-88. 9 “Water Resources in the Sky: an address by Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall,” Congressional Record, 112 (January 29, 1966): 1489.
convincing water-hungry farmers that they had the secret to the old Indian Rain Dance.”10
Farmers, public utility companies (Bonneville Power Administration paid $59,000 for
rainmakingservices),the sugar industry, aluminum companies, and others spent millions
hiring contractors to seed the skies with carbon dioxide and silver iodide. In 1951 one
seeding company had under contract over 300,000,000 acres in the United States.11
The rush to these rainmaking ventures seemingly reflected the confidence in the
new cloud seeding technology and potential. The men advocating and profiting from the
new era in weather modification tended to be meteorologists—men like Irving P. Krick, a
member of the U.S. Army Weather Board that forecast the weather for the D-Day
invasion, who after the war built a lucrative cloud seeding company and a name in
statistical and long-range weather forecasting.12 In those early years following the war,
weather scientists and lay persons alike spoke of weather control enthusiastically and
assuredly. Vannevar Bush, president of the CarnegieInstitution, told a congressional
subcommittee, “I have become convinced that it is possible under proper circumstances
to make rain…. we are on the threshold of an exceedingly important matter, for man has
begun for the first time to affect the weather in which he lives, and no man can tell where
such a move will finally end.”13
Althoughexperts came to believe that weather modification was possible, it was
still unclear when and how often the proper conditions existed to make rain or whether
rainmaking could be undertaken on a scale large enough to significantly impact the
10 “Drought in Western States and in Florida: Remarks by Senator Peter H. Dominick of Colorado,” Congressional Record, 117 (August 6, 1971): 30626. 11 “Committee to Study and Evaluate Public and Private Experiments in Weather Modification,” Congressional Record, 97 (October 8, 1951): 12738; “Research and Experimentation in Weather Modification,” Congressional Record, 98 (June 21, 1952): 7777. 12 Halacy, Weather Changers, 95-96. 13Congressional Record, 98 (June 21, 1952): 7777.
economy. Also sketchy was the impact of cloud seeding agents in local areas or areas
even as far as 3,000 miles away, as Langmuir believed. To answer these questions
required no less than amassive data-driven program under auspices of a larger apparatus
than private interests could provide. The need for a national, closely coordinated effort to
develop the technology, test the methods, and evaluate the outcomes was acute.
In 1951 ten senators—eight from the Reclamation western states—sponsored a
bill in Congress that called for creation of an independent committee to evaluate the
enormous body of data generated by private and public weather modification experiments
in the country. Initially, the act included a controversial amendment that gave
government agencies authority to indemnify contractors for experiments conducted for
the government. Fearing that the amendment “might expose the Government to
substantial damage suits arising from the experimentation,” lawmakers removed section
10 fromSenate BillS. 2225while considering the bill.14 However, law makers felt it
essential for the government to take the lead in developing the science and technology to
address the efficiency and feasibility of weather control. The government might help to
protect farmers from kooks and scam artists, against fraudulent claims and promises, and
against too much water derived from rainmaking. A significant step in a government role
came in 1953 with creation ofthe Advisory Committee on Weather Control, patterned
after the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.15
Like the nation’s vast groundwater stores, which by mid-century had increasingly
become valued as sources of agricultural and domestic water, water resources in the
atmosphere provided a common good. The question was how to regulate and manage a 14 Congressional Record, 98 (June 21, 1952): 7778; “Joint Resolution of Legislature of New Mexico,” Congressional Record, 101 (May 5, 1955) :714. 15 Congressional Record, 97 (October 8, 1951): 12738; Congressional Record, 98 (June 21, 1952): 7777.
resource that belonged collectively to the public. No legal, scientific, or physical means
existed to control or regulate rainmaking. And no political mechanism to regulate
weather manipulation could be createduntil more data existed on how various agents
reacted to different atmospheric conditions, etc. Still, in the minds of some, the
government could not hesitate any longer to intervene in the “uncontrolled and
indiscriminate efforts of many groups and persons to modify climates.” In March 1955
the New Mexico Legislature passed a senate joint memorial urging the Congress to pass a
law prohibiting cloud seeding or other methods of rain induction untilthere was enough
information to regulate it. Reportedly, “a good many people in the Southwest” believed
that rainmaking may be partly to blame for recent drought. Although there was no
evidence to support this hypothesis, tinkering with the weather made some people
The Advisory Committee on Weather Control, created by Congress in 1953,
reported at the end of 1957 that the program of rainmaking required more basic
information and practical experimentation. It recommended sponsoring a research
program through grants and contracts to various federal agencies, universities, industries,
and research institutions. Senator Francis H. Case of South Dakota subsequently
supporteda bill giving the National Science Foundation authority to build a research
program, but it was a start and absorbed only a tinyfraction of the 1959 federal
expenditure of $7.4 billion for scientific research and development. Proponents of
tapping the atmosphere for water commonly compared the miniscule public funding of
rainmaking to the massive NASA program. As Admiral Luis de Florez of the U.S. Navy
Reserve commented in 1961, “I do not imply that we should curtail our space programs 16 Congressional Record, 101 (May 5, 1955): 5714.
in any way, but I do mean that our atmospheric conditions constitute the greatest single
factor controlling the existence of life on earth, and that reshaping the conditions of inner
space to our own advantage should accompany the attempts to masterouter space.”17
The Politics of Project Skywater A long and varied history of rainmaking, then, preceded Project Skywater.
Reclamation did not originate the ideaof rainmaking or usher it into the modern era.
Rather, it gradually assumed a leading role in determining how extensivelyrainmaking
would be used in the future. In 1961 Congress appropriated $100,000 out of the 1962
Public Works Appropriations Bill for research to increase rainfall through cloud seeding.
The project was an experimental program designed to bring together the best minds in
meteorologyand the physical sciences in the public and private sectors. The initial and
subsequent appropriations to Skywater went in large part to universities and private
research organizations contracted out to perform the research. A team of physical
scientists, meteorologists, electronic engineers, technicians, administrative personnel, and
others based in the Engineering Research Center in Denver, Colorado, headed the
program from Reclamation’s end.
Project Skywater complemented the general research program already initiated by
the National Science Foundation as well as the specific weather programs studying
hurricanes at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and fog
dispersal at the departments of Defense and Transportation. The difference was
Skywater directedmost of its attentionto augmenting the nation’s water supply. In the
early years the project did laboratory work to use previously acquired information to
17 “Weather—Take It or Make It,” An address by Adm. Luis de Florez of the U.S. Navy Reserve, Congressional Record, 107 (April 3, 1961): 5433-34.
develop cloud seeding techniques. Reclamation later tested this information when it
developed larger field experiments and programs to test the practical application of
seeding technology. Reclamation conducted tests in the West’s mountains to increase
winter snowpack and, later, on the high plains and other areas to develop cloud seeding
techniques in the summer months. In addition, Reclamation performed theoretical and
intellectual work on economic, environmental, and sociological aspects of weather
altering technology. Project Skywater was essentially a whirlpool of ideas, centrally
directed by Reclamation across a broadarea, with cooperation and coordination on the
national, state, and local levels.
What Skywater needed to get up and running was a healthy infusion of cash, but
no such expenditures were forthcoming. Project proponents pointed to the abysmal
funding in the early years. In 1965 Reclamation received a mere $1.1 million for weather
modification, and the next year another $3 million, largely for research in the Colorado
River basin. The enormous expenditures on the space program and even ocean, land, and
other atmospheric studies frustrated proponents of weather modification and Project
Skywater in particular. Senator George McGovern spoke of the congressional funding
for Skywater as “a pittance compared to the billions we are pouring into space
explorationand, more recently, the development of a supersonic transport plane of
questionable utility.”18
Weather modification received a boost in 1966 with Interior Secretary Stewart
Udall’s speech before the annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society in
Denver. Udall cited the crisis of polluted air and water and the desperate need to clean 18 United States Senate, Committee on Appropriations, Public Works Bill, 1962, S.Rpt. 1097, 87th Cong., 1st sess., September 20, 1961, 28; “Rainfall increased over non-mountainous areas by South Dakota scientists,” Remarks by Senator George McGovern, Congressional Record, 114 (January 31, 1968): 1683.
the nation’s skylines, rivers, and lakes. These, he argued, were common goods and
essential resources which needed protection for future generations. Udall spoke in the
tradition ofconservationists who advocate environmental ethic not for protection’s sake
but for nature’s utility to man. To that end he put faith in human solutions and
The secretary reminded his audience that for decades the government had been at
the forefront in damming, diverting, and powering water on the earth’s surface, in taking
water where it pools and channeling it to a field or a power generating plant or a city for
drinking water. “Yet with all our planning and building and looking ahead to try to
outguess the future,” Udall claimed, “we find ourselves still at the mercy of the weather.”
The secretary pressed the point that society had not achieved total control over nature,
particularly the elements. Udall continued,
[W]e must make progress in orders of magnitudegreater than we are now making. Many ways of hastening this progress are open to us and we cannot afford to neglect any of them. But to my mind the most logical and challenging is the one which most stirs the imagination. This is worthwhile utilization of the water resources of the sky.
Then Udall waxed eloquent about “the idea of enormous rivers of water flowing
over us in the atmosphere; of huge pools of moisture poised above our heads; of
enormous reservoirs in vaporous state sailing majestically over mountains, or pumping
into them and dropping their precious burdens too soon.” What might it take to tap into
and manipulate that enormous water supply? No less than total control over the
knowledge of water in the atmosphere by bringing together the best minds, the latest
technologies, and mapping out weather patterns. The secretary urged Congress to
recognize the national importance for this research claiming,“We have no alternative but
to be knowledgeable of the water budget of the atmosphere, day-in and day-out, over any
part of the United States, over the Nation as a whole, over this entire continent and the
oceans which bound it.” Then, in issuing the challenge heevoked the spirit of
Reclamation emphasizing that it was not a question of “‘Can we do it?’ but rather, ‘How
soon can we do it?’”19
Udall was not the lone voice of support in the early years of Project Skywater.
Politicians, Reclamation’s commissioner, and others spoke of the good and necessary
step to fund fully the nation’s weather modification programs. Floyd Dominy, in a
speech given in 1967, spoke of “[t]he wealth of water in both ocean and atmosphere,
evident to all, [that] has, through history, just evaded mankind’s eager grasp.” “We have
been like the legendary Tantalus, who was doomed to stand neck deep in water which
flowed away as he bent his head to drink it, and to reach everlastingly for luscious fruit
hanging just before his mouth, only to have it swung away out of reach by the breeze,” he
said. Dominy emphasized the great strides researchers had made, “Now we are near to
breaking the spell and winning the prizes both from the limitless sea and from brackish
inland waters and from the atmosphere that carries moisture above our heads.”20 Many
were sure that the day was not far distant before humankind tapped these waters. Utah’s
senator Frank E. Mossspoke of the need for the largest proposed distribution system in
the world—the North American Water and Power Alliance (NAWPA)—because he took
it for granted that water would be artificially engineered from the oceans.21
19 Udall speech, Congressional Record, 112 (January 29, 1966): 1488-90. 20 Floyd Dominy, An address before the annual Rivers and Harbors Congress Convention in Washington, D.C., June 1967, Congressional Record, 113 (June 21, 1967): 16708-09. 21 Senator Frank Moss, An address at the Conservation Congress for the Pacific Northwest, Wenatchee, Washington, March 7, 1967, Congressional Record, 113 (March 21, 1967): 7487.
In its early years, Project Skywater gave some reason for optimism such as when,
in 1968, the South Dakota School of Mines Institute of Atmospheric Science generated
evidence thatincreasingprecipitation overa non-mountainous areawas possible.22
Nevertheless, for all the talk of the future of rainmaking, the data to support claims or
provide irrefutable proof was not there. At first Reclamation engineers said, vaguely and
quite imprecisely, little more than that weather modification might augment water supply
in drought ridden areas or, conversely, prevent rainfall in flood-prone zones. Directly
correlating rainmakingefforts in the sky to water storage and distribution on the ground
was essential to winning support and situating rainmaking in the context of
Reclamation’s mission, but no one could say for certain how that correlation worked and
what the benefits were. Reclamation’s best guess was that weather modification in some
areas had the potential to increase surface water by 10-20 percent. In the Colorado River
basin alone they claimed cloud seeding could add two million acre feet to the Colorado
Even after several years into the project, all this seemed a long way off.
Nevertheless, a number of supporters of Project Skywater remained convinced that the
problem lay in the lack of government funding. But the project, like Johnson’s Great
Society,became a casualty of the Vietnam Warand shrinkinggovernment budgets. Even
still, expert coordination and liberal funding was unable to solve every problem. A
Skywater press release on March 17, 1968, reported the challenges the project faced.
Progress, while quite substantial, has served also to identify many problem areas which must be solved before operational capability can be achieved.
22 McGovern speech, Congressional Record, 114 (January 31, 1968): 1683. 23 Dominy speech, Congressional Record, 113 (June 21, 1967): 16709; McGovern speech, Congressional Record, 114 (January 31, 1968): 1683.
These areas include knowledge of—what atmospheric conditions are best suited for seeding, the amount of artificial nuclei required to achieve best results for given conditions. The behavior of nuclei inside real clouds, measuring and evaluating the effects of seeding, determining meteorological side effects, and the legal, social, biological, and other implications of precipitation management.24
Thus, by the late 1960s a shift occurred in the rhetoric praising the potential of
tapping the“rivers in the sky.” In the late 1950sScience Newsletterreported that in a
poll of meteorologists nearly half believed humans could prevent hail and lightning
within ten years and steer tornados and hurricanes within 50 years.25 They predicted no
less than total lordship over the elements in less than two generations. Years later the
scientists who held that view revised their thinking as they confronted studies and data
pointing to the highly unstable, unpredictable, and complex nature of weather. Moreover,
a sea of change in the basic assumptions of how water management operated washed over
the Reclamation’s operations. It was becoming clear that the best places to dam and
distribute water were running low; that the quest to control every western water system
alone was ineffective in solving the water crunch; that water managers must consider the
impact of their operations on ecosystems and the health of water systems and living
organisms. These new realities and societal assumptions began to chip awayat the
traditional enthusiasm for technology’s capacity to control nature. Not that the notion of
rainmaking was necessarily wrongheaded or technically impossible. Evidence suggested
that making rain or dispersing fog clouds was possible, but others schemes like steering
hurricanes were less probable. The disappointment and disillusionment of total control
24 Colorado River Basin Project Act, Remarks by Senator Frank Moss, Congressional Record, 114 (September 9, 1968): 26153. 25 de Florez speech, Congressional Record, 107 (April 3, 1961): 5434.
formed the basis of a new weather modification plan, more tempered and down-to-earth
than originally conceived.26
Even as scientists and policy makers acknowledged all that they did not know,
weather modification remained big business in the private sector and a preferred strategy
to confront the nation’s growing water crisis in public government. Reportedly, in 1965
seventy-nine weather modification projects operated in the United States and other
countries of the western hemisphere—sixty for rainmaking, the others for fog dispersal
and hail reduction. Private commercial firms seeded clouds for farmers, increased
snowpack above dams for power companies, abated hail for ranchers, and dissipated fog
for airlines.27
In 1967 when Senator Peter H. Dominick of Colorado introduced legislation to
fund weather modification efforts in the upper Colorado River basin, he acknowledged
that “we have much to learn about the effect of weather modification upon ecology and
we must be equally aware of the legal ramifications.” Accordingly, he proposed twice as
much funding to study the results and effects of the program than for the practical
experimentation of weather modification. His plan attempted to complement Project
Skywater by enlarging the scope of research and direct application of increasing rainfall
and snowfall in the upper basin. Dominick and other politicians sympathetic to the idea
of increasing the nation’s water supply by cloud seeding frequently argued their case by
stating enough information existed to verify that weather modification was possible and
26 See Scientific Problems of Weather Modification, 3-4. 27 Halacy, Weather Changers, 4-5.
potentially beneficial, butthe project required sufficient funding to come to a satisfying
Technology, Testing, and Implementation Project Skywater had been designed to develop weather modification technology
and methods and to assist other entities working in the field. The project did not,
however, have thecongressional charter to extend beyond research and development to
operation and implementation. If state or county entities hoped to implement weather
modification in their locales, they had to fund it from state or county sources. Since none
of the research projects could extend indefinitely, and the fact that Reclamation had no
authority or funding to implement programs put the project on life support. Within three
decades of its first congressional appropriation, it had been discontinued.
The criticism that federally sponsored weather modifications never made it past
the drawing board was directed to, in Senator Dominick’s words, “a persuasive
bureaucratic attitude—in segments of both the government and academia—that it must
remain in the category of a research project—perhaps ad infinitum.” In the senator’s
1971 speech to his colleagues, he pointed out that twenty-five years of studyproduced
ample evidence that cloud seeding was feasible on a large scale. Instead, he claimed,
scientists “sit on cloud seeding as if it were some kind of illegitimate egg.” The senator
derisively referred to an “expert” from Reclamation who stated that “maybe by 1974” the
time was ripe to transition to actively using weather modification technology to fight
drought and other waterproblems.
28 “Colorado River Basin Legislation,” Remarks by Senator Peter H. Dominick of Colorado, Congressional Record, 113 (June 29, 1967): 18010; “S. 2826—Introduction of Bill Relating to Weather Modification,” Remarks by Senator Peter H. Dominick of Colorado, Congressional Record, 115 (August 12, 1969): 23526-27.
Dominick noted the rest of the world had taken weather modification seriously.
Russia annually spent millions to reduce hail and increase rain. Using the services of a
U.S. firm, in 1967 Iran ran an intense cloud seeding project and consequently brokea six
year drought. The same firm also aided Newfoundland’s chief forester to fight raging
forest fires and Cyprus to end a drought over a large portion of the island. All this
occurred at a time when the United States government sat on its hands. Dominick
blamed Congress for allotting only a small portion of the hundreds of millions of dollars
earmarkedto atmospheric research in the last quarter century to development of cloud
seeding technology. For instance, in fiscal 1971 eight agencies working on research and
development of cloud seeding shared only about $10 million. The senator urged
Congress to act on this issue to predict and prevent drought crises in the future.29
Skywater never provided the kind of national umbrella advocated by Dominick,
who in fact did not believe the program ought to be run by the Bureau of Reclamation
anyway. Rather, he saw the project was highly regional and local. When interested
parties convened at the Skywater Conference VII in Denver on March 2-3, 1972, the
unanimous decision was to keep itlocal and especially to divest as much local control of
individual projects as possible.30 Even still, Skywater was part of a national attempt to
collect in a systematic manner atmospheric data bytesting cloud seeding technology on a
local scale and evaluating it against broader patterns in weather behavior. To do this
required a sweeping program that drew on the latest technology and techniques
developed over the years.
29 Dominick speech, Congressional Record, 117 (August 6, 1971): 30626-28. 30 Archie M. Kahan, “Project Skywater – A Progress Report,” 11,
Reclamation’s Project Skywater was just such a program, and although modestly
funded in its first years it had become poised to lead the national effort. Project planners
usedthe latest technologysuch as acomputer-drafted cloud model that byinputting the
dimensions and characteristics of cloud formations was able to predict the behavior of the
cloud to modification stimuli. The model used atmospheric pressure, cloud height, air
temperature, and other variables to predict outcomes. Take for instance a cloud with a
radius of one kilometer in Amarillo, Texas. Given all the variables, the computer model
projected0.138 inches more rainfall if seeded than would ordinarilyfall under natural
Skywater featured a series of pilot projects across the western states to study
seeding in different environments at different times of the year. The earliest push in
cloud seeding was in winter cloud research. The Desert Research Institute in Nevada
headed Skywater’s first winter storm studies in the Sierra Nevada. The Institute used a
specially fitted plane, mountain-top radar, precipitation gauges, snow towers, and other
instruments and technology to understand the convective cloud system over the Sierra
Nevada and determine when and under what conditions it rained. Part of the program
was to test silver concentrations to show how dispersal of silver iodide makes its way into
the weather system in the air and the snow. The program lasted four seasons. The
Institute’s research at Pyramid Lake demonstrated, according to a Skywater report, that
“under optimum conditions—cloud seeding could add up to 129,000 acre-feet of new
water to the Truckee [River] annually.”32
31 Reclamation, Project Skywater: An Introduction to Rivers in the Sky, 3-4. 32 Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Project Skywater: Final Report of the Desert Research Institute, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1972, under contract for the Division of Atmospheric Water Resources Management of the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, Reno, Nevada,
The largest winter cloud-seeding program was the Colorado River Basin Pilot
Project (CRBPP), beginning in the winter of 1970-71. In implementing this research
pilot project Reclamation was sensitive to state laws governing the use of weather
modification in Colorado. Back in 1951 the Colorado state legislature passed the
Weather Control Act, granting the state the right to claim increased snowfall from
weather modification activities. The Colorado Weather Modification Act of 1972
clarified the powers of the Department of Natural Resources, established an advisory
board, and required a permit and license for cloud seeding. Later, during the droughts of
the 1970s the state legislature appropriated funds to the Department of Natural Resources
for winter seeding programs to alleviate water scarcity in the state. Reclamation worked
with the state and relied on the expertise of other agencies and organizations in carrying
out the work. The Geological Survey supplied stream flow data; the National
Oceanographicand Atmospheric Administration and National Centerfor Atmospheric
Research provided special aircraft for studies; the Department of Transportation,
Colorado State Highway Department, and the Colorado Highway Patrol shared
information with avalanche researchers; and the Soil Conservation Service collected and
measured snow samples.33
The pilot program worked something like this. From field headquarters in
Durango, Colorado, project meteorologists determined the right conditions to fire up the
cloud seeding generators located at the base of the mountain slopes. Scientists in Denver,
using models, determined how wind currents lifted particulates from generators on the
1973, iv, 1; Gilbert Stamm, speech at the 27th Annual Nevada Water Conference held in Carson City, “Reclamation—1973 and in the Future,” Congressional Record, 119 (November 15, 1973): 37430-31. 33 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Division of Atmospheric Water Resources Management, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, Denver, Colorado, 1977, 1-22–1-34.
ground into the storm clouds above. After the seeding, contractors hired by Reclamation
then collected data at over 200 monitoring sites to determine how much snowpack
accumulated as a result of seeding and whether increased snowpack might have an
impact on the ecology of the area and on avalanches. Scientists also examined how cloud
seeding affected natural processes and species, testing, for instance, soil samples to
determine concentration of silver from the cloud-seeding silver iodide.34
In general, Project Skywater had the blessing of locals. Some, however, worried
aboutimpactson snow levelsand avalanches, damages from heavy snowfall, costs of
snow removal, and other related issues. Residents from Telluride and Ouray and other
communities on the western slope worried about avalanche danger and other problems
associated with excess snow. They were concerned about the effects of snow and runoff
on hunting, fishing, jeeping, agriculture, and ranching. The anxiety was so high that one
miner even threatened sabotage, saying, “If those weathermen screw up life around here
they may suddenly discover their equipment blown to bits.” A man from Silverton,
Colorado, commented that regardless of the actual resultsof Skywater, Reclamation may
shoulder the blame for weather accidents. Reclamation officials like Archie Kahan, chief
of Reclamation’s office of atmospheric water resources in Denver, countered these
criticisms by attempting to assure locals that the bureau was makingeveryeffort to study
the ecological, social, and economic impacts of cloud seeding before implementing a
long-term project.35
34 Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Snowpack Augmentation Research Needs: A History of Weather Modification in Colorado, Bureau of Reclamation Cooperative Agreement No. 9-07-85-V0027, Denver, Colorado, June 1982, 1-3; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Mountain Skywater: The Story of the Colorado River Basin Pilot Project in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado, VHS, Reclamation, [no date]. 35 Roger Rapoport, “Some Tough Westerners Say: ‘No Snow Job for Us!’” Sports Illustrated, (June 29, 1970), online.
In the end, no long-term weather project was established in the Colorado River
basin, despite the generally positive conclusion that seeding from 20 to 40 percent of the
winter storms and that over halfof those yieldedhigher precipitation.36 Thepilot project
in the Colorado River basin was one piece of a puzzle spread across the western states.
Project engineers and researchers developed or planned to develop technology and
smaller winter cloud seeding projects in Montana’s Bridger Range, Utah’s Uinta
Mountains, New Mexico’s Jemez Mountains, California’s Sierra Nevada, and
Wyoming’sMedicine Bow Mountains.37
Reclamation had high hopes that the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project in the
American River basin would bring together the latest technology to direct the possibilities
of atmospheric water management in the Sierra Nevada. Armed with the mission to find
a safe and clean way to enrich the area’s natural precipitation, Reclamation began by
collectingenvironmental data. The Center for Regional Environmental Studies at
California State University in San Diego received the contract to review the
environmental effects of the project. Together with the Forest Service the project
eventually produced a report situating weather management into the larger ecological
picture: soil water, plant growth, steam and lake biota, and animal migration.38 The
project aimed to developtechnology to predict thenature and cloud-seeding potential of
winter clouds; evaluate when to seed, potentially to avoid contributing to avalanche or
flooding danger; uncover potential legal, economic, and social consequences of cloud
seeding. However, the project never made it past planning and was never carried out.39

36 Kahan, “Project Skywater,” 8. 37 Reclamation, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, 1-19; Kahan, “Project Skywater,” 13. 38 Reclamation, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, 1-18–1-19, 1-20 –1-21. 39 Reclamation, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, 1-20–1-21.
As winter cloud seeding research progressed, Project Skywater initiated a few
summer cumulus seeding research projects. Archie Kahan stated that summer projects
came “because many key problems remain in summer cumulus seeding and there is an
apparent rapid increase in public interest in summer seeding.” The summer cloud
seeding projects spread across the country. Research programs at the Institute of
Atmospheric Sciences at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology examined salt
and silver iodide in summer convective clouds. Skywater’s San Angelo Cumulus Project
near San Antonio, Texas, developed use of hygroscopic seeding to increase precipitation
in warm climates. In Illinois the state water survey teamed up with Skywater to develop
technology on frontal and squall-line storms. Skywater also worked with the governors
of Arizona, Texas, and Oklahoma and with the President’s Office of Emergency
Preparedness for drought-relief cloud seeding operations. Cloud seeding reportedly
produced increases in rainfallof10-15 percent in Texas and Arizona and of95,000 acre
feet in Oklahoma—strong evidence that further developments and research in the field
could result in large-scale benefits.40
The largest summer seeding program was the High Plains Cooperative Program, a
research-driven field program designed to develop rainmaking technology for use on the
high plains. Reclamation established threefield sitesnearMiles City, Montana, Colby
Goodland, Kansas, and Big Spring-Snyder, Texas, where testing began in May 1975.
The program used some ground generators, like the CRBPP, and also airplanes to seed
the cumulus clouds with silver iodide and urea-ammonium nitrate. The planes were
specially equipped to monitor temperature, winds, humidity, and cloud updrafts.
Although theplanesseeded areasno larger than aradius of 65 miles from the radar 40 Kahan, “Project Skywater,” 8, 11-12.
control station at each field location, the effects of that seeding might extend across a
broad geographical area. This was one of the challenges of analyzing and evaluating
weather data.41
The program collected as much data as possible. Field teams monitored clouds
suitable for seeding, examined when and under what conditions seeding was applicable
using complex numerical models and hypotheses, and developed seeding techniques
appropriate to atmospheric conditions. Then, scientists evaluated the data. Just a few
years into the program scientists had collected essential atmospheric data on convective
rain cells and the percentage of cells acceptable for seeding. To be more precise, of the
20,000 convective cells expected to accumulate in the atmosphere during the five-month
summer season, 800 appeared suitable for seeding.42
From the beginning of Project Skywater the concern was how cloud seeding
might affect “the balance of biological communities,”in the words of theNational
Science Foundation.43 Reclamation initiated ecological studies such as the Uinta Ecology
Project in Utah and the San Juan Ecology Project in Colorado and in some cases
produced environmental impact statements for its Skywater projects. The challenge, of
course, was that impacts to land, water, and air were not site specific. The size and
complexity ofweather systemsmade the task of determiningenvironmental
consequences highly difficult and imprecise.
There were also questions about a dark side of cloud seeding. Some wondered if
cloud seeding caused, or at least contribute to, the torrential flood that ripped through 41 Reclamation, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, 1-6–1-14. 42 Reclamation, Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater, 1-12–1-14. 43 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, An Overview of the Skywater IX Conference on Precipitation Management and the Environment: Discussion and Summary Reports, Denver, Colorado, September 1977, 1.
South Dakota’s Rapid City in the summer of 1972. During the evening of June 9, Rapid
City residents thought little of the rising waters. Near midnight, however, the river tore
up Canyon Lake dam—the last defense—and the waters that had been building strength
all day laid waste to the city, claiming 250 lives and $100 million in property damage.
What was to blame for this catastrophe? Was it an act of nature or, as on one writer
called it, an “‘Act of God’—with a Few Grains of Salt?” Could the Institute of
Atmospheric Sciences at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology’s Project
Cloud Catcher, funded byacontract awarded byReclamation, have beenresponsible for
producing rain “at an unusually heavy pace?” The director at the Institute of
Atmospheric Sciences denied any wrongdoing, and even a board of inquiry established
by the governor concluded that cloud seeding did not contribute to the disaster. One
article called into question conclusions weather modification scientists that there was no
connection. Ironically,they simultaneously acknowledgednot knowing enough about the
weather system to definitely say how and when rainmaking works. James Crutchfield, an
economist at the University of Washington, stated, “When it gets to the point where there
is a possibility of really catastrophic side effects, and when these catastrophic side effects
are occurring close enough to the weather modification as to raise the possibility of a
cause-and-effect relationship, there is serious questions in my mind as to whether we
ought to be fooling around with it at all.”44
Another problem with cloud seeding is the chemical, silver iodide, an inorganic
compound that can be toxic when ingested. According to one report, even at low
concentrations dispersed over a large area the agent might have negative consequences to
44 For details on the debate over the causes of the Rapid City flood, see “The Effects of Weather Modification,” Congressional Record, 119 (May 31, 1973): 17628-34; quote by Crutchfield, Ibid., 17633.
freshwater microorganisms. Moreover, there was always a question of silver
accumulating in the atmosphere, plants, or the groundwater if cloud seeding became
widely practiced. A law professor in Arizona reportedly warned of the legal
ramifications stemming from pumping silver into the atmosphere—in however small
amounts. However, the workshop uncovered nothing incriminating. “There appears to
be no real threat from sliver iodide as a cloud seeding agent…. Public concern is probably
based on misunderstanding, not on actual damages.” Despite the assurance, it
recommended monitoring concentrations and left room for revision based on future
Reclamation’s environmental statement noted adverse effects in tentative terms.
Avalanches might occur, elk ranges could diminish, cropland may become subject to
erosion, but concluded nothing was certain to warrant immediate concern. It was this
tentativeness, this inconclusiveness, that had defined the project—not just the impact to
the environment but the very efficacy of the project itself.
To be sure, Skywater brought complex technical and technological issues to bear
on the question of altering the weather. The project required sophisticated statistical
designs, data collection, measurement, communications, field support and equipment,
analysis, and cooperative agreement between state and government agencies and the
public. It required adjusting variables in each area and considering the nature of the
atmosphere and other site-specific conditions over a broad geographic canvas. Skywater
consisted of many parts, seemingly disparate, spread across the western states. Project
Skywater designers hoped to integrate technologies and methods developed across the
45 Reclamation, Overview of Skywater IX Conference, 1-2, 13, 15.
region into a national effort, but this was not to be. Moreover, Skywater never received
the funding or congressional blessing that some supporters had hoped.46
Conclusions After 1940 some scientists and lay persons used the word “control” when
speaking of the possibility of changing the weather. Some optimistically believed that it
was possible to tinker with the weather system—to increase precipitation, disperse fog,
steer hurricanes, etc. The idea of Project Skywater derives from the human impulse to
modify the natural world to its own liking. When the technology and means became
available to tinker with the weather system, it was as though an infusion of adrenaline
shot into the scientific and meteorological communities. At long last the primal urge to
harnessand control rain, snow,hail,fogand even hurricanes seemed within reach.
Skywater was an ambitious program that if seemingly fantastical today evoked in the Age
of Engineering a certain inevitable and climatic drama.
If Project Skywater and other like projects teach us anything it is that human
control of the atmosphere—nature, for that matter—is not as total as we sometimes think
possible. No sooner had meteorologists, policymakers, and agriculturalists set out on the
course of weather control than they confronted the immensity of the situation. The
weather system was just too large. U.S. scientists in Project Stormfury tested methods to
steer or disperse the energy in hurricanes, but by 1980 they had given up the quest.
Dropping a bomb in the ocean to break up the storm would “be like trying to stop a
freight train by placingafeather on the tracks,” according to one observer. Layering the
46 James V. Lunsford, “Water Potentials of Weather Modification,” Paper delivered at the New Mexico Water Conference, March 27-28, 1969, 77, Reportedly, in 1990 the project received a small infusion of funds $3.2 million, but by that late date the project had already nearly expired, see Congressional Record, 136 (June 19, 1990): 14621.
ocean with a film to prevent moist air from rising and forming storms might work if the
ocean were not so big and were it possible to predict where storm clouds developed.47
Simply, nature is too bigand too complex to control. Modified, perhaps, or managed, but
even then not entirely to our liking. In fact, about the only method proven successful, at
least to some extent, is cloud seeding to increase precipitation.
Project Skywater’s history overlapped an important transitional period in
Reclamation’s history. It came as Reclamation entered an era of huge construction
programs and builtdams on manymajor river systemsin the West and,when under
Floyd Dominy, Reclamation enjoyed a reputation and elevated position within the
pantheon of the federal bureaucracy. That the bureau took the next step in its institutional
progression and turned to domination over the “rivers in the sky” should come as no
surprise. By the late 1960s, the consensus that supported big dam construction had
waned, and scientists temperedtheir optimism in weather modification possibilities. The
United States was entering a new era of resource management, and that had a tremendous
impact on Reclamation’s operations. By the time it had thoroughly transitioned from
dam builder to water manager, in the late 1980s, Reclamation no longer entertained
notions of total domination over the West’s water resources—not on ground nor in the
While scientists have faced the fact that the processes involved in rain formation
are complex, not all have given up the quest to alter the weather. Recently, Roelof
Bruintjes, of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado, commented that
better monitoring and measuring technology may lead to developments in rainmaking.
47 Jack Williams, “Project Stormfury Attempted to Weaken Hurricanes in the 1960s and 70s,” USA Today, April 18, 2006, online.
Even now, according to one account, there are more than 150 cloud seeding projects in
forty countries. In China the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) oversees a
major ongoing effort using anti-aircraft cannons to bombard the skies with silver-iodide
particles. The Chinese government claims the $100 million per year project created 250
billion metric tons of artificial rain over a seven-year period, but these figure cannot be
verified. China is one of many countries that use weather modification, however
scientifically suspect, to alleviate challenges related to crop damage from hail or from
severe water shortages.48
All this continues to be met with skepticism by some in the scientific community
who insist that however far we have come in altering the weather, the dream is still a long
ways off. Would-be weather changers must confront scientific, ethical, cost-benefit, and
various questions if they are to make progress where Project Skywater and other early
projects began. Project Skywater played no small role in the ongoingeffortby producing
a large body of experimental data for the field of meteorology and inching us closer to the
possibilities and limitations of altering the weather.
48 Rob Sharp, “Weather Modification: The Rain Makers,” The Independent, April 30, 2008.
Government Documents
Colorado Department of Natural Resources. Snowpack Augmentation Research Needs: A History of Weather Modification in Colorado. Bureau of Reclamation Cooperative Agreement No. 9-07-85-V0027. Denver, Colorado, June 1982.
Desert Research Institute/University of Nevada System. Project Skywater: Final Report of the Desert Research Institute. July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1972. Under contract for the Division of Atmospheric Water Resources Management of the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior. Reno, Nevada, 1973.
National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Scientific Problems of Weather Modification; A Report of the Panel on Weather and Climate Modification. Publication 1236. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1964.
United States Congress. Congressional Record. 1951-90.
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. The Design of SCPP-1, Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project. Denver: Office of Atmospheric Water Resources, August 1982.
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Final Environmental Statement for Project Skywater. Three Volumes. Denver, Colorado, 1977.
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Mountain Skywater: The Story of the Colorado River Basin Pilot Project in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. VHS, Bureau of Reclamation, [no date].
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. An Overview of the Skywater IX Conference on Precipitation Management and the Environment. Denver, Colorado: September 1977.
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Project Skywater: An Introduction to Rivers in the Sky. December 1973.
United SstatesDepartment of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. “Project Skywater: A Project Report.” By Archie M. Kahan, Chief of Division of Atmospheric Water Resources Management, Engineering and Research Center, Reclamation, [1972?]. Available on the web at
Secondary Sources
Halacy, D. S., Jr. The Weather Changers. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1968.
Hemel, Eric I., and Clifford G. Holderness. An Environmentalist’s Primer on Weather Modification. Stanford, California: Stanford Environmental Law Society, September 1977.
Lamar, Howard R., editor. The New Encyclopedia of the American West. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1998.
Rapoport, Roger. “Some Tough Westerners Say: ‘No Snow Job for Us!’” Sports Illustrated. June 29, 1970. Online.
Sharp, Rob. “Weather Modification: The Rain Makers.” The Independent. April 30, 2008.
Spence, Clark C. The Rainmakers: American “Pluviculture” to World War II. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980.
Williams, Jack. “Project Stormfury Attempted to Weaken Hurricanes in the 1960s and 70s.” USA Today. April 18, 2006. Online.
Other Sources
Lunsford, James V. “Water Potentials of Weather Modification.” Paper delivered at the New Mexico Water Conference, March 27-28, 1969. Available on the web at

Project Artichoke | CIA Quest 4 Mind Control Drugs | Bio-WarFare


Sidney Gottlieb, presided over the Central Intelligence Agency's cold-war efforts to control the human mind. He will always be remembered as the Government chemist who dosed Americans with psychedelics in the name of national security, the man who brought LSD to the C.I.A.

Sidney Gottlieb, presided over the Central Intelligence Agency’s cold-war efforts to control the human mind. He will always be remembered as the Government chemist who dosed Americans with psychedelics in the name of national security, the man who brought LSD to the C.I.A.

Photo: Sidney Gottlieb (Associated Press, 1977)


The CIA’s Quest for a Mind Control Drug and Wendell Johnson’s Monster Study: A
Comparison of Unethical Experiments ~ Courtesy of Adrienne Hunacek. Used with permission.
Adrienne Hunacek
(Answering Question 2)

In The Search for The Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control, John
Marks presents a thrilling and gripping story about intelligence agents’ attempts to use
drugs, hypnosis, electroshock therapy, and brainwashing, amongst other techniques, to
try to control other human beings. The disturbing thing about this book is that it is not a
novel, but an entirely factual account of experiments carried out by the Office of Secret
Services (OSS) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The majority of these experiments were unethical, and many violated just about
every part of the Nuremburg Code. In their search for a drug that would make people
share their secrets, the CIA gave subjects marijuana, LSD, and a variety of other drugs
without their knowledge, completely disregarding the idea of informed consent. Perhaps
the best example of this is the testing Sid Gottlieb did on the scientists who worked at the
Army Chemical Corps’ Special Operations Division in November 1953. These men, who
studied toxic substances that could potentially be used for assassination and other
purposes, thought they were going on a weekend work retreat. Instead, they were given
LSD in their drinks without their knowledge, so the CIA could observe the effects of the
drug. One man, Frank Olsen, became depressed and psychotic, and ended up killing
himself within a week or so. The CIA admitted, although secretly, that LSD had
“triggered” Olsen’s death. Olsen was doing classified research for the government, but
he certainly never consented, explicitly or implicitly, to be a guinea pig in the testing of a
mind control drug.
After the Olsen disaster the CIA and the people involved in the MKULTRA
operation, still led by Sid Gottlieb, needed to find new test subjects, so they “chose ‘the
borderline underworld’- prostitutes, drug addicts, and other small-timers who would be
powerless to seek any sort of revenge if they ever found out what the CIA had done to
them” (Marks 96). The CIA set up “safehouses”, brought the subjects there, gave them
drugs (amongst them LSD and marijuana), and observed what happened to the subjects.
In addition to drugs, the CIA agents tested a variety of intelligence techniques, including
recording devices and two-way mirrors. All of this was done, once again, on unwitting
subjects who had not in any way given consent, much less informed consent. In
addition, the CIA operatives had little concern for the health of the subjects, they were
simply interested in learning about response to the drug and how effective it was at
getting people to share secrets.
At the time of the experiments, the subjects’ health did not cause undue concern. At the safehouse, where most of the testing took place, doctors were seldom present…In addition to LSD, which they knew could cause serious, if not fatal problems, TSS officials gave White even more exotic experimental drugs to test, drugs that other agency contractors may or may not have already used on human subjects (Marks 105).
So if these experiments were so unethical, why were they able to be conducted
without a public outcry? Unlike at a university or academic setting, the CIA’s business is
secrecy, lying, and hiding. Therefore, when things did get out of control (for example, in
the case of Frank Olsen) they were able to keep them covered up. After Olsen’s death,
the CIA was scrupulous about making sure no one found out what had happened.
“Agency officials tried to make sure that no outsider would tie Olsen’s death either to the
CIA or to LSD” (Marks 89).
In addition, the CIA can use the designation “Classified” to prevent people
outside of a select group from knowing about experiments. Whereas someone doing
research sponsored by their university is required to present their work at meetings, and
subject their experiments to peer review and criticism, someone doing classified research
is free from the standards of their colleagues. Describing the involvement of academic
professionals in the kind of unethical research that has been sponsored by the CIA, Marks
Any professional doing the kind of things the agency came to sponsor-holding subjects prisoner, shooting them full of unwanted drugs-probably would have been arrested for kidnapping or aggravated assault. Certainly such a researcher would have been disgraced among his peers. Yet, by performing the same experiment under the CIA’s banner, he had no worry from the law. His colleagues could not censure him because they had no idea what he was doing (Marks 35).
The CIA decided it would be best if their involvement with the universities and
their experiments with LSD were kept secret, to avoid anger on the part of the American
public and interest in LSD on the part of the Russians. To accomplish this they passed
funding for their research through intermediary foundations. “They did not want to spur
the Russians into starting their own LSD program or into devising counter-measures.
The CIA’s secrecy was also clearly aimed at the folks back home….Moreover, the CIA
Inspector General declared that disclosure of certain MKULTRA activities could result in
a ‘severe adverse reaction’ among the American public” (Marks 64).
The CIA furthered this by moving many of the experiments out of the United
States, since there are specific restrictions on their actions within the United States. This
is perhaps one reason why they made such extensive use of Dr. Ewen Cameron, a
Montreal doctor who subjected his patients to a “depatterning” regime, which combined
electroshock therapy with drug cocktails and controlled sleeping patterns. Even after
patients became confused or lost their memory, Cameron continued experimenting on
them, interpreting this as a sign that his depatterning was working. He also pressed
patients to go on with the experiment, including combinations of his psychic conditioning
and LSD treatments, when they told him they wanted to stop. It is widely accepted that
Cameron’s psychic conditioning is complete pseudoscience. “Cameron wrote that
psychic driving provided a way to make ‘direct, controlled changes in personality’,
without having to resolve the subject’s conflicts or make her relieve her past experiences.
As far as is known, no present-day psychologist or psychiatrist accepts his view” (Marks
146). In addition to being scientifically unsound, Cameron’s experiments were clearly
unethical, yet he was widely regarded as a psychiatrist and was even president of the
American Psychiatric Association for a time.
A common thread throughout many of these CIA experiments is that they took
advantage of people who were unable to fight back. The CIA experiments made use of
prostitutes and other people that they had deemed not valuable.
The men from ARTICHOKE found their most convenient source among the flotsam and jetsam of the international spy trade: ‘individuals of dubious loyalty, suspected agents or plants, subjects having known reasons for deception, etc’…It is fair to say that the CIA operators tended to put less value on the lives of these subjects than they did on those of American college students (Marks 34).
Likewise the Tuskegee experiment used those who were least able to defend
themselves, and thus the researchers were able to get away with treating the subjects very
unjustly. This included lying to them and telling them they were being treated and then
preventing them from getting free treatment, even once Penicillin, a cheap and effective
way of treating syphilis, became available. They deliberately chose an area of Alabama
where the population was poor and uneducated, and was not in any position to question
the researchers, or create an uproar even if they found out they were being lied to. The
fact that the subjects were black, and the racism that was unfortunately prevalent in this
country at that time, also contributed to the fact that the experiment was not widely
condemned. “The experiment was widely reported for 40 years without evoking any
significant protest within the medical community” (Brandt 29).
These experiments and their exploitation of defenseless people remind me of an
experiment that happened in my home state of Iowa in the late 1930s, that recently made
headlines in the Des Moines Register. Dr. Wendell Johnson, who was a well-known
speech pathologist at the University of Iowa, and has a research center there named after
him, conducted experiments to test his “diagnosogenic theory” of stuttering. The basic
idea of the theory is that
All children have trouble with their speech when they are young, often repeating words and syllables. By drawing attention to their speech, he reasoned, overzealous parents would make their children so self-conscious and nervous that the children would repeat more words. In time, the children would become so sensitized to their speech that they would not be able to talk without stuttering (Dyer).
Johnson decided to experiment on the children in the Iowa Soldiers’ Orphans
Home. His graduate student, Mary Tudor Jacobs, was the one who actually met with the
children and conducted the experiments. She identified 10 stutterers and 12 normal
speakers, and divided each group equally into an experimental group and a control group.
The children in the control group, both stutterers and non, received positive speech
therapy, while the children in the experimental group, even the normal speakers, were
interrupted, corrected, and made to feel self-conscious about their speech. Even after
Johnson and Tudor’s involvement was over, the teachers in the orphanage continued
what they believed were lessons that helped improve the children’s speech.
This experiment was clearly an unethical exploitation of powerless people. Not
only did the children not give consent, but they had no parents to give consent and their
teachers were also kept in the dark about the real nature of the study. This is one of the
reasons why Johnson was able to carry out such an experiment on children. Dyer
describes why Johnson was so eager to use the orphanage children. “Moreover, Johnson
didn’t need parental permission – something that probably would have been denied. ‘I
think it’s not coincidental that he chose to do it with a group of parentless kids’, said
Trishia Zebrowski, 45, an assistant professor at the Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing
Center in Iowa… ‘This was the only way he was going to get the kids’” (Dyer).
Johnson never even published the results of the study, so it provided no benefits,
and in fact harmed society by the damage it did to the orphans. This violates another part
of the Nuremburg Code. After World War II, Johnson’s colleagues warned him that
publishing his theory might draw unfavorable comparisons to the Nazi doctors and ruin
his reputation. Johnson did eventually publish his “diagnosogenic theory” of stuttering,
though without any of the direct evidence he had obtained in what later came to be called
“The Monster Experiment”, even though this evidence overwhelmingly supported his
ideas. Even without any direct evidence, his theory was widely recognized as the leading
one until the 1970s, and although no longer dominant, is still used. The fact that Johnson
was able to gain all this recognition and acclaim without ever publishing the results of his
study indicates that it was not absolutely necessary, and that it did little or nothing to help
society. While it could be argued convincingly that Johnson’s theory and ideas have
helped in the treatment of many other people with stuttering problems, it’s impossible to
claim that the experiment that he did on the children in the orphanage has benefited
people in anyway, and it has certainly proved very damaging to the victims.
Another part of the Nuremberg Code states “The experiment should be conducted
so as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury” (Nuremburg
Code 182). Johnson’s experiment caused a great deal of mental suffering for its subjects,
including people who otherwise would have had a much better life. Many of the normal
speakers in the experiment were made into stutterers, and suffered for the rest of their
lives as a result. Their stuttering made any hope of being adopted or finding a happy
home impossible. Many started ran away from the orphanage or dropped out of school
because of the humiliation and bullying they had to endure from their peers. One
subject, Mary Korlaske Nixon, who was in the “normal” group before the experiment,
suffered for the rest of her life. Tudor, like the other subjects, did not know she had been
part of an experiment, and that her stuttering had been deliberately worsened. After
finding out from the reporter who was investigating the story, she wrote in a letter to
Mary Tudor “’Why experiment on orphans, we have all ready had enough problems and
was unwanted. I have nothing left. You stolen my life away from me” (Dyer).
In conclusion, it is clear that the experiments discussed here, including the CIA
mind control experiments, the Johnson stuttering experiment, and the Tuskegee syphilis
experiment, were all unethical. Each experiment violated some or most of the
Nuremberg Code. Subjects were regularly experimented on without giving informed
consent, by researchers who took little or no regard for their physical or mental health.
These studies were often not necessary and sometimes gave no benefit to society. Yet
they were able to continue, because they took advantage of the people in our society who
least have a voice: prostitutes and other “lowlifes”, poor, uneducated minorities, and
orphaned children. These are the people who most need an advocate, and instead they
were exploited and used for experiments by researchers.

1. Brandt, Allan. “Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis
Experiment.” Tuskegee Truths. UNC Press, 2000.
2. Dyer, Jim. “Orphans Scars Linger” The Des Moines Register. June 12, 2001.
3. Dyer, Jim. “Speech Study on Orphans Haunts Researcher” The Des Moines
Register. June 11, 2001.
4. Marks, John. The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and
Mind Control. New York: W.W. Horton, 1979.
5. Nuremburg Code. Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military
Tribunals. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1949.


In the 1950’s and early 1960’s, the agency gave mind-altering drugs to hundreds of unsuspecting Americans in an effort to explore the possibilities of controlling human consciousness. Many of the human guinea pigs were mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts and prostitutes — ”people who could not fight back,” as one agency officer put it. In one case, a mental patient in Kentucky was dosed with LSD continuously for 174 days.

Other experiments involved agency employees, military officers and college students, who had varying degrees of knowledge about the tests. In all, the agency conducted 149 separate mind-control experiments, and as many as 25 involved unwitting subjects. First-hand testimony, fragmentary Government documents and court records show that at least one participant died, others went mad, and still others suffered psychological damage after participating in the project, known as MK Ultra. The experiments were useless, Mr. Gottlieb concluded in 1972, shortly before he retired.

The C.I.A. awarded Mr. Gottlieb the Distinguished Intelligence Medal and deliberately destroyed most of the MKUltra records in 1973.

John Gittinger, a C.I.A. psychologist who vetted Mr. Gottlieb — ”one of the most brilliant men I’ve ever known” — and worked with him for 22 years, said the agency began the tests because it was gripped by ”a great fear” in the cold war. It was afraid that the Soviet Union would corner the market on LSD and use it as a chemical weapon or that China would perfect the black art of brainwashing, Mr. Gittinger said.

The agency and Mr. Gottlieb believed the United States had to fight by any means necessary.

”We were in a World War II mode,” Mr. Gittinger said. ”The war never really ended for us.”

John Marks, author of the definitive book on the experiments, ”The Search for the ‘Manchurian Candidate’ ” (Times Books, 1979) said Mr. Gottlieb was ”unquestionably a patriot, a man of great ingenuity.”

”Gottlieb never did what he did for inhumane reasons,” Mr. Marks said. ”He thought he was doing exactly what was needed. And in the context of the time, who would argue? But with his experiments on unwitting subjects, he clearly violated the Nuremburg standards — the standards under which, after World War II, we executed Nazi doctors for crimes against humanity.”

Sidney Gottlieb was born in New York City on Aug. 3, 1918, the son of immigrants from Hungary. His parents were orthodox Jews, but he did not embrace the faith. Mr. Gottlieb ”had had a real problem to find a spiritual focus, having gone away from Jewishness,” Mr. Gittinger said, and he experimented with everything from agnosticism to Zen Buddhism all his life.

He left the City College of New York, first for the Arkansas Polytechnic Institute, then for the University of Wisconsin, where he graduated, magna cum laude, with a chemistry degree in 1940. He earned a doctorate in biochemistry from the California Institute of Technology, where in 1942 he married Margaret Moore, the daughter of Presbyterian missionaries who served in India, where she was born. A clubfoot kept him from military service in World War II, and he was always bitter that he missed the war, Mr. Gittinger said.

Mr. Gottlieb joined the C.I.A. in 1951, although not before telling Mr. Gittinger, his interviewer, that he had been a socialist in his youth.

Two years later, the agency established MKUltra and Mr. Gottlieb was running it. As chief of the agency’s technical services division, he served two decades as the senior scientist presiding over some of the C.I.A.’s darkest secrets.

The first of these were the LSD experiments. Mr. Gottlieb was fascinated by the drug, and, a family friend said, he took it hundreds of times.

”He was the most curious man I ever knew,” Mr. Gittinger said. ”He was willing to try anything to discover something.”

Mr. Gottlieb was also involved in the C.I.A.’s assassination plots. In the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations, Mr. Gottlieb, always under orders from the Director of Central Intelligence or his chief spymaster, developed a poison handkerchief to kill an Iraqi colonel, an array of toxic gifts to be delivered to Fidel Castro, and a poison dart to kill a leftist leader in the Congo. None of the plans succeeded.

After he left the C.I.A., Mr. Gottlieb and his wife went to India, where he ran a leper hospital for 18 months. A lifelong stutterer, he pursued a master’s degree in speech therapy. He bought land with an old log cabin outside a small Virginia town, Boston, where he practiced two of his lifelong hobbies, folk dancing and herding goats.

”He bought that old house and the land with the idea of setting up a communal home, with several families living together,” said Mr. Gittinger, a lifelong friend. At least one other couple stayed for years.

Mr. Gottlieb spent his last years in Washington, Va., a pretty village in the foothills of the Blue Ridge mountains, working in a hospice, tending to the dying.

He is survived by his wife and four children, Penny Gottlieb Chesluk, Rachel Gottlieb Samoff, Peter Gottlieb and Steven Gottlieb. Cleaving to old habits of secrecy, his wife declined to disclose the cause of Mr. Gottlieb’s death.

Photo: Sidney Gottlieb (Associated Press, 1977)

Ritual Abuse, Ritual Crime, and Healing| DE-Classified MKUltra Documents ~ LIST




CLICK HERE For PDF File about List of MKULTRA Unclassified Documents (including subprojects) regarding Ritual Abuse, Ritual Crime and Healing, if you want to Download and Save.  Otherwise, the List of MKUltra Unclassified Documents re Ritual Abuse, Ritual Crime and Healing are listed below


This information was transcribed from faxes and brochures which are available from the National Security Archive.
Please note that the documents listed are only those requested by John Marks for research purposes. Some of the information in the released documents has been verified, other information has not. Also please note that there have been some transciption errors.
About the Archive Library
The National Security Archive Gelman Library, The George Washington University 2130 H Street, N.W., Suite 701 Washington, D.C. 20037 Phone: 202/994-7000 Fax: 202/994-7005 http// html
The National Security Archive is a non-governmental research institute and library that collects and publishes declassified documents obtained through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, a public interest law firm defending and expanding public access to government information through the FOIA, and an indexer and publisher of the documents in books, microfische, and electronic formats.

The National Security Archive was founded in 1985 by a group of journalists and scholars who had obtained documentation under the FOIA and sought a centralized repository for these materials. Over the past twelve years, the Archive has become the world’s largest non-governmental library of declassified documents.
This is the inventory list of donated materials in the National Security Archive’s collection, from John Marks’ FOIA request results which he used to do research for his book The Search For The Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control, The Secret History of the Behavioral Sciences. (1979) W. W. Norton, published as Norton paperback in 1991, ISBN 0-393-30794-8).
INVENTORY: CIA Behavior Experiments Collection (John Marks Donation)
Date Range: 1940s-1970s
Box #1 – Artichoke Documents–MKULTRA DOCS 1-57
Burch, Dr. Neil/LSD and the Air Force: Smithsonian: Index and Institutional Notifications Subproject 1: MKULTRA: Plants Isolation and Characterization of Rivea Corymbosa Subproject 2: MKULTRA: Drugs Subproject 3: MKULTRA: Testing Subproject 4: MKULTRA: Mulholland’s Manual Subproject 5a: MKULTRA Subproject 5b: MKULTRA: Denver University Hypnosis Subproject 6: MKULTRA: Testing of Plants by HEF Subproject 7: MKULTRA: Funding; ONR Probably Abramson Subproject 8: MKULTRA: Boston Psychopathic Hospital Subproject 9: MKULTRA: Depressants, Schizophrenics, Alcoholics Subproject 10: MKULTRA: Personality Assessment Subproject 11: MKULTRA: Botanicals Popkin (Documents and articles on Luis Angel Castillo) Subproject 12: MKULTRA: Financial Records Subproject 13: MKULTRA: CIA Support to Fort Detrick Subproject 14: MKULTRA: Paying Bureau of Narcotics for White Subproject 15: MKULTRA: Magic Support; Mulholland Supplement Subproject 16: MKULTRA: Testing Apartment Rental

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents Subproject 17: MKULTRA: LSD Studies of [excised] University Subproject 19: MKULTRA: Magic Manual Subproject 20: MKULTRA: Synthesis Derivative of Yohimbine Hydrochloride Subproject 21: MKULTRA: Defector Study: originally Drug Study Subproject 22: MKULTRA: William Cook and Co. Research: Amanita Muscaria, Rivea Corymbosa Subproject 26: MKULTRA: Pfeiffer, Finances Subproject 27: MKULTRA: ONR Funding, LSD Research Subproject 28: MKULTRA: Pfeiffer Subproject 30: MKULTRA: Fort Detrick (1) Subproject 30: MKULTRA: Fort Detrick (2) Subproject 30: MKULTRA: Fort Detrick (3) Subproject 31: MKULTRA: Manufacture of Drugs by Pellow Wease Chemical Co. Subproject 32: MKULTRA: Collection of Plants Subproject 33: MKULTRA: Collection of 400 for SUBPR #27 Subproject 34: MKULTRA: More Support to Magic Subproject 35: MKULTRA: Georgetown Hospital: Geschichter Subproject 36: MKULTRA: Cuba Chapter Conference, Consultant, Subproject involving getting a man on a diverted freighter Subproject 37: MKULTRA: Collection of Botanicals Subproject 38: MKULTRA Subproject 39: MKULTRA: Iowa State Hospital (and Ionia) Subproject 40: MKULTRA: Funding, Probably Abrams LSD Research
Box #2
Subproject 42: MKULTRA: Safehouse Chapter 7: MKULTRA Interview Notes White, George Hunter Dope Traffickers’ Nemesis Subproject 43: MKULTRA: Combination drug, Hypnosis, Sensory Deprivation Subproject 44: MKULTRA: Testing of Aromatic Amines at University of Illinois Subproject 45: MKULTRA: Knockout, Stress, Cancer Subproject 46: MKULTRA: Rochester LSD Drugs Subproject 47: MKULTRA: Pfeiffer Atlanta Subproject 47: MKULTRA: (1) Pfeiffer Atlanta/Bordertown Subproject 48: MKULTRA: HEF Cornell Relationship: Artichoke Team Proposals and Reports Subproject 49: MKULTRA: Hypnosis at [excised] University Subproject 50: MKULTRA: CIA Imprest Fund for $500 Subproject 51: MKULTRA: (1) Moore Collecting Botanicals Subproject 52: MKULTRA: (2) Moore Collecting Botanicals Subproject 53: MKULTRA: (3) Moore Collecting Botanicals

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents Subproject 53: MKULTRA: Review Pharmacological lit. Subproject 54: MKULTRA: Brain Concussion Subproject 55: MKULTRA: Unwitting Drug Tests at [excised] University Subproject 56: MKULTRA: Studies on Alcohol, Stanford Medical school Subproject 57: MKULTRA: Sleep and Insomnia at GW: MKULTRA: Lloyd Gould Subproject 57: MKULTRA: Sleep
Box # 3
C-30 Project MUDHEN Jack Anderson MKULTRA –To File: Massachusetts (Bibliographic Citations, articles on mind control experiments in Massachusetts): John Jacobs’ Kentucky Subproject 58: MKULTRA: J. P. Morgan and Co. (see Wasson file) Agency Policy and Conferences Subproject 59: MKULTRA: Unwitting Drug Tests at University of Maryland Subproject 60: MKULTRA: Human Ecology Subproject 61: MKULTRA Subproject 62: MKULTRA: Consulting Work in Isolation/Electric Shock/CNS Drugs Subproject 63: MKULTRA: (1) Drugs and Alcohol (Butler) Subproject 64: MKULTRA: Drugs Subproject 65: MKULTRA: Hungarian Refugees Subproject 66: MKULTRA: Alcohol and Drug Study Subproject 67: MKULTRA: CIA Use of Institutes Facilities — University of Indiana Subproject 69: MKULTRA: Rutgers Subproject 70: MKULTRA: “Knockout” Subproject 71: MKULTRA: Dr. Wallace Chan at Stanford University Testing Drugs Subproject 72: MKULTRA: Testing Drugs for Effects on Central Nervous System Subproject 73: MKULTRA: University of Kentucky: Narcotics Farms, Narco-Hypnosis Subproject 74: MKULTRA: Small HEF Subproject (1) Subproject 74: MKULTRA: Small HEF Subproject (2) Subproject 75: MKULTRA: Mass. Mental Health (by Project number of master list) Subproject 77: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (1) Subproject 78: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (2) Subproject 78: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (3) Subproject 78: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (4) Subproject 78: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (5) Subproject 78: MKULTRA: Biological Lab (6)

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents Box # 4
Document Indexes, Abstracts, and Documents Subproject 79: MKULTRA: Cutout for Funding Research of a “sensible nature” Subproject 80: MKULTRA Subproject 81: MKULTRA: Cornell–Extension of Hinkle–Wolf Subproject 82: MKULTRA: Hungarian Refugees Subproject 83: MKULTRA: Graphology Journal and Cover Subproject 84: MKULTRA: Hypnosis Work Subproject 85: MKULTRA: Stanford Medical School Subproject 86: MKULTRA: Stanford Medical School: Telecontrol Subproject 87: MKULTRA: Hyper -Allergic Substances Subproject 88: MKULTRA: Cultural Appraisal Subproject 89: MKULTRA: Hungarian Repatriation Subproject 90: MKULTRA: MIT–A. J. Wiener Subproject 91: MKULTRA: Drug Testing and Screening of Animals Subproject 92: MKULTRA: Teaching Machine for Foreign Languages Subproject 93: MKULTRA: Toxin Study–Cuba Chapter Subproject 94: MKULTRA Subproject 95: MKULTRA: Osgood Subproject 96: MKULTRA: George Kelly Subproject 97: MKULTRA: Schizophrenics Psychotherapy Subproject 98: MKULTRA: Mass Conversion Study: Queens College Subproject 99: MKULTRA: Optics mixed with Biological Warfare–Cuba Chapter Subproject 100: MKULTRA: CBW Penn State Subproject 101: MKULTRA: Biophysics of Central Nervous System Subproject 102: MKULTRA: Adolescent Gangs Subproject 103: MKULTRA: Children’s Summer Camps Subproject 104: MKULTRA: Sabotage of Petroleum Subproject 105: MKULTRA: CBW, Disease Subproject 106: MKULTRA: Electrodes, Russian Study Subproject 109: MKULTRA: Drugs-CBW Testing Subproject 110: MKULTRA: CBW MKNAOMI Subproject 112: MKULTRA: Vocational Studies in Children Subproject 113: MKULTRA: Gas Sprays and Aerosols Subproject 114: MKULTRA: Alcohol Study Subproject 115: MKULTRA: Mentally Disturbed and Environment Subproject 116: MKULTRA: Lab Subproject 117: MKULTRA: Cultural Influences on Children Subproject 118: MKULTRA: Microbiology–Penn State Subproject 119: MKULTRA: Telecontrol–Texas Christian Subproject 120: MKULTRA Drug Research Subproject 121: MKULTRA: Witch Doctor study-Dr. Raymond Prince– McGill

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents University Subproject 122: MKULTRA: Study of Neurokinin Subproject 123: MKULTRA: African Attitude Study Subproject 124: MKULTRA: African Attitude Study Subproject 125: MKULTRA: CO2 and Acid Base Research Subproject 126: MKULTRA: Work on Placebos and Drugs Subproject 127: MKULTRA: Disaster/Stress Study Subproject 128: MKULTRA: Rapid Hypnotic Induction Subproject 130: MKULTRA: Personality Theory, David Saunders/William Thetford; Columbia Univ.
Box # 5
Subproject 131: MKULTRA Subproject 132: MKULTRA: Safe House — Not San Francisco Subproject 133: MKULTRA: Safe House — Not San Francisco Subproject 134: MKULTRA: Correlation Of Physique and Personality done by Haronian in New Jersey — Human Ecology Subproject 135: MKULTRA: Testing on Volunteers Subproject 136: MKULTRA: ESP Research Subproject 137: MKULTRA: Handwriting Analysis, Dr. Klare G Toman-HEF Subproject 139: MKULTRA: Bird Disease Studies at Penn State Subproject 140: MKULTRA: human Voluntary Drug Testing Subproject 141: MKULTRA: Unknown Subproject 142: MKULTRA: Unknown Subproject 143: MKULTRA CBW/Bacteria University of Houston Subproject 144: MKULTRA Subproject 145: MKULTRA Subproject 146: MKULTRA Subproject 147: MKULTRA: Psychometric Drugs THC Subproject 148: MKULTRA: (1) Marijuana Research Subproject 148: MKULTRA: (2) Marijuana Research Subproject 149: MKULTRA: George White and Federal Bureau of Narcotics MKULTRA APE A and B–Funding Mechanisms for MKULTRA ARTICHOKE Docs 38-461 (2) ARTICHOKE Docs 156-199 ARTICHOKE Docs 200-310 (1) ARTICHOKE Docs 200-310 (2) ARTICHOKE Docs 200-310 (1) ARTICHOKE Docs 200-310 (2) ARTICHOKE Docs 311-340

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents ARTICHOKE Docs 362-388 ARTICHOKE Docs 388-461 MKSEARCH 7 MKSEARCH 6 (continuation of MKULTRA 62) MKSEARCH 2 (continues BW Lab, MKULTRA 78) MKSEARCH Docs S-2 (BW Lab) MKSEARCH Docs S-8 (Phase out of work done on schizophrenics probably by Pfeiffer) MKSEARCH Docs S-7 MKSEARCH Basic Documents Unlabeled Accordion File–primarily MKULTRA: Subproject 42 Unlabeled Accordion File–Financial records, checks
Box # 6
MKSEARCH 6 Discontinuation of Geschichter Fund for Medical Research MKSEARCH 2 MKSEARCH 5 MKSEARCH S-14 MKSEARCH 6 – MKACTION MKSEARCH 4 – Bureau of Narcotics Safehouse MKSEARCH 3 – Testing at Vacaville, Hamilton MKSEARCH S-3 Vacaville (1) MKSEARCH S-3 Vacaville (2) Lexington: Air Force: Alcohol: Amnesia: Animals: David Anthony:ARPA Subproject 107: MKULTRA: American Psychological Association: Army Testing: Assassination: Raymond A. Bauer: Berlin Poison Case: Biometric Lab: Biophysical Measurements: Beecher (Henry K.): Brainwashing ARTICHOKE Docs 59-155: Bordentown New Jersey Reformatory: Boston Psychopathic (Hyde-Massachusetts Mental Hospital): Brain Studies: Brainwashing (1): Brainwashing (2): Project Calling Card: John Marks Chapter 6 Conclusions: Chadwell, W.H.: CBW Work File: Dr. Wallace Chan: Cold War Late 1953-1955 (1): Cold War Late 1953-1955 (2): Communist Control Techniques VII: Cold War Docs (1) (Project Artichoke, Bluebird): Cold War Docs (2): Control of Behavior –General: Cybernetics: Defectors: University of Denver: Destruction of Files: Diseases: Drug Research and Operations Diseases: Drug Research and Operations: Drugs: Documents ARTICHOKE: Drugs: ARTICHOKE: Drugs: ARTICHOKE (2): Drugs: Subprojects
Box # 7

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents
Ethics: Federal Penitentiary — Atlanta: Fisher Scientific Company: Flickering Lights: FOIA Important Documents (FOIA correspondence and Court DocumeRnts for suit against the CIA):Freedom of Info Act requests (1): Freedom of Info Act requests (2): Foreign Countries: Heath: Foreign Liaison: Friends of McGill University, Inc.: Ft. Detrick: Joan Gavin: Genetics: George Washington University: Geschichter Fund: Unlabeled File –MKULTRA Subprojects: Government Agencies: Graduate students: Grifford: Handwriting Hardenberg: Hearings: Hinkle: History: Hospitals: Hungarian Projects: (Defectors, Refugees): Edward Hunter: Hypnosis 50-53: Hypnosis, Cold War period: Hypnosis – Literature: Hypnosis Hypnosis – C I:: Hypnosis Documents (1): Subproject ARTICHOKE: Hypnosis Documents (2): Subproject ARTICHOKE: Hypospray: Inspector General: University of Illinois: Internal Revenue Service: Iowa State Hospital, Ionia State Hospital, Michigan: Ittleson Foundation: IVY Research Lab: Johns Hopkins University: Juicy Quotes: Lyman Kirkpatrick: John Lilly: Lovell Chemical Company: Lovell: Lowinger: LSD – Counterculture: LSD – (Old Sandoz File): LSD (1): LSD (2)
Box # 8
Magic: Mulholland: George Merck: University of Minnesota: Miscellaneous: MKDELTA: ARTICHOKE Docs/Clips: MKDELTA Subprojects: James A. Moore: MKNOOM: Mulholland: Mushrooms — Chapter 8: Naval Research, Military Side — Chapter 14: Oatis Case: Often/Chickwit: Ohio State University: Operation Paperclip: Organizational Structure: ORD: World War II: Martin Orne: Parapsychology (Limited discussion on EMR research also): The Application of Tesla’s Technology in Today’s World
Box # 9
(Original Box 13– not copied as of 7/2/93) Press Conferences (Excerpts from documents): Pfeiffer Subproject 47: Penn State (clippings): Placebos: Pfeiffer, Carl C.: Pharmaceutical Houses: Polygraph: POW: Prince– Witch Doctor Study: Prisoners — Documents Prisoners-Mental Patients (clippings): Private Company: Programming: Prouty: Psychological Assessment: Research and Development Study by Edgewood Arsenal: Personality Assessment — OSS (Clippings, Book Chapters, Interview Notes): Psychical Research Foundation: Psycho-Pharmacology: Psychosurgery: Psychosurgery (2) (clippings): Max Rinkel: Public Health Service: Puerto Rican Study: Recent Agency Policy on Experimentation: Recent Events in Defense Department (Includes document from Siemmer): Project Revere: RHIC-Edom Files (Clippings): Chapter 7 — Safehouse

RA: MKULTRA de-classified documents (draft manuscript?): Safehouse Working File (personal notes): Safehouses (Documents): Schein (clipping): Schultes (clippings, notes): Sensory Deprivation (primary clippings): Schultes (clippings, notes): Chapter 7 — Safehouses– clippings
Box # 10
CIA Behavior Modification Reports: Side Tone Delay Device II: Incapacitation — NonLethal: 4 Assessment: Sleep Knockout Drug (clippings): Alexander H. Smith (clippings): Soil Microbiology: Sonics: Stanford: Team Exp. 1: Technical Assistance: ARTICHOKE: Technologies: Toxic Psychic States: Ultra Sonics/Sonics: Tradecraft: Universities (clippings): Wasson, Robert Gordon (notes, clippings): Wendt: White TD Docs: Harold Wolff (clippings): Documents to File (miscellaneous topics)
Box # 11
Sleep Learning: Interrogation: Electric Fish and Animal Radar 1/3: Electric Fish and Animal Radar 2/3: Electric Fish and Animal Radar 3/3: Plants, Sleep Machine, ESB and Sleep, Biocommunications and Bioelectronics: History of Program: Animal ESB: Toxicity in mice 1/4: Toxicity in mice 2/4: Toxicity in mice 3/4: Toxicity in mice 4/4
Box # 12
Index Cards
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